Platinum

Platinum (Pt)

Attractive greyish-white metal. When pure, it is malleable and ductile. Does not oxidize in air, insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid. Corroded by halogens, cyandies, sulphur and alkalis. Hydrogen and Oxygen react explosively in the presence of platinumpy. There are six stable isotopes and three radioisotopes, the most stable being Pt-193 with a half-life of 60 years. Platinum is used in jewelry, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts, dentistry, and anti-pollution devices in cars. PtCl2(NH3)2 is used to treat some forms of cancer. Platinum-Cobalt alloys have magnetic properties. It is also used in the definition of the Standard Hydrogen Electrode. Discovered by Antonio de Ulloa in South America in 1735. The name comes from the Spanish word platina which means silver. Platinum metal is generally not a health concern due to its unreactivity, however platinum compounds should be considered highly toxic.
Atomic Number78
Atomic Weight195.084
Mass Number195
Group10
Period6
Blockd
Protons78 p+
Neutrons117 n0
Electrons78 e-
Platinum crystals.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Pt (Platinum) Enhanced Bohr Model of Pt (Platinum) Bohr Model: Pt (Platinum) Orbital Diagram of Pt (Platinum)

Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
123 pm
Metallic Radius
130 pm
Ionic Radius
60 pm
Crystal Radius
74 pm
Van der Waals Radius
213 pm
Density
21.5 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
8.95883 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
470 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
21.76 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
565.7 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
Valence Electrons6
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Electronegativity
2.2
Electrophilicity
2.249320350691278 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
4,098.15 K
Melting Point
2,041.35 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Gray
Appearancesilvery white
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
71.6 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.0000089 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
25.86 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.133 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
9.4 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000011 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000122 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.00000000238 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0002573
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
3.92 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
3.5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
230 GPa
Shear Modulus
61 GPa
Young Modulus
168 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.38
Speed of Sound
2,680 m/s
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIIIA
IUPAC GroupVIII
Glawe Number64
Mendeleev Number69
Pettifor Number68
Geochemical Classnoble metal
Goldschmidt Classsiderophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
48 ± 4 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
10
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.002
Quantum Numbers3D3
Space Group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Platinum

Stable Isotopes6
Unstable Isotopes38
Radioactive Isotopes39

165Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
164.999658 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number165
G-Factor
Half Life
370 ± 180 us
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2019
Parity-

165Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

166Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
165.994866 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number166
G-Factor
0
Half Life
294 ± 62 us
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1996
Parity+

166Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

167Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
166.99275 ± 0.000329 Da
Mass Number167
G-Factor
Half Life
915 ± 123 us
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1996
Parity-

167Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

168Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
167.988180196 ± 0.00016096 Da
Mass Number168
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.02 ± 0.1 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

168Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

169Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
168.986619 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number169
G-Factor
Half Life
6.99 ± 0.09 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity-

169Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

170Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
169.982502087 ± 0.000019588 Da
Mass Number170
G-Factor
0
Half Life
13.93 ± 0.16 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

170Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

171Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
170.981248868 ± 0.000086904 Da
Mass Number171
G-Factor
Half Life
45.5 ± 2.5 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity-

171Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)86%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

172Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
171.977341059 ± 0.000011139 Da
Mass Number172
G-Factor
0
Half Life
97.6 ± 1.3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

172Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)96%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

173Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
172.976449922 ± 0.000068096 Da
Mass Number173
G-Factor
Half Life
382 ± 2 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1966
Parity-

173Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)86%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

174Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
173.972820431 ± 0.000011098 Da
Mass Number174
G-Factor
0
Half Life
862 ± 8 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1966
Parity+

174Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)74.9%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

175Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
174.972400593 ± 0.000019982 Da
Mass Number175
G-Factor
Half Life
2.43 ± 0.04 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1966
Parity-

175Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)64%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

176Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
175.968938162 ± 0.000013647 Da
Mass Number176
G-Factor
0
Half Life
6.33 ± 0.15 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1966
Parity+

176Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
α (α emission)40%

177Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
176.968469541 ± 0.00001609 Da
Mass Number177
G-Factor
Half Life
10 ± 0.4 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1966
Parity-

177Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)94.3%
α (α emission)5.7%

178Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
177.965649288 ± 0.000010878 Da
Mass Number178
G-Factor
0
Half Life
20.7 ± 0.7 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1966
Parity+

178Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)92.3%
α (α emission)7.7%

179Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
178.965358742 ± 0.000008563 Da
Mass Number179
G-Factor
0.86 ± 0.06
Half Life
21.2 ± 0.4 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1966
Parity-

179Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.24%

180Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
179.96303801 ± 0.00001079 Da
Mass Number180
G-Factor
0
Half Life
56 ± 3 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1966
Parity+

180Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.48%
α (α emission)0.52%

181Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
180.963089946 ± 0.000014695 Da
Mass Number181
G-Factor
0.96 ± 0.04
Half Life
52 ± 2.2 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1966
Parity-

181Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.074%

182Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
181.961171605 ± 0.000014057 Da
Mass Number182
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.67 ± 0.12 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1963
Parity+

182Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)0.962%
α (α emission)0.038%

183Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
182.961595895 ± 0.000015261 Da
Mass Number183
G-Factor
1 ± 0.01
Half Life
6.5 ± 1 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1963
Parity-

183Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.0096%

184Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
183.959921929 ± 0.000015828 Da
Mass Number184
G-Factor
0
Half Life
17.3 ± 0.2 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1963
Parity+

184Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.0017%

185Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
184.960613659 ± 0.000027731 Da
Mass Number185
G-Factor
-0.16 ± 0.0024444444444444
Half Life
70.9 ± 2.4 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1960
Parity+

185Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.005%

186Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
185.959350845 ± 0.000023344 Da
Mass Number186
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.08 ± 0.05 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

186Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)1.4%

187Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
186.960616646 ± 0.000025837 Da
Mass Number187
G-Factor
-0.26466666666667 ± 0.0053333333333333
Half Life
2.35 ± 0.03 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1961
Parity-

187Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

188Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
187.959397521 ± 0.000005694 Da
Mass Number188
G-Factor
0
Half Life
10.16 ± 0.18 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1954
Parity+

188Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%
α (α emission)2.6%

189Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
188.960848485 ± 0.000010832 Da
Mass Number189
G-Factor
-0.292 ± 0.0053333333333333
Half Life
10.87 ± 0.12 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1955
Parity-

189Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

190Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
0.012 ± 0.002
Relative Atomic Mass
189.959949823 ± 0.000000705 Da
Mass Number190
G-Factor
0
Half Life
483 ± 3 Gy
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

190Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)%

191Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
190.961676261 ± 0.00000443 Da
Mass Number191
G-Factor
-0.33266666666667 ± 0.0033333333333333
Half Life
2.83 ± 0.02 d
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

191Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

192Pt

Abundance
0.782 ± 0.024
Relative Atomic Mass
191.961042667 ± 0.000002758 Da
Mass Number192
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

192Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%

193Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
192.962984546 ± 0.000001458 Da
Mass Number193
G-Factor
1.202 ± 0.016
Half Life
50 ± 6 y
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

193Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

194Pt

Abundance
32.864 ± 0.41
Relative Atomic Mass
193.962683498 ± 0.000000532 Da
Mass Number194
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

195Pt

Abundance
33.775 ± 0.24
Relative Atomic Mass
194.964794325 ± 0.00000054 Da
Mass Number195
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1935
Parity-

195Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%

196Pt

Abundance
25.211 ± 0.34
Relative Atomic Mass
195.964954648 ± 0.000000547 Da
Mass Number196
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

197Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
196.96734303 ± 0.000000575 Da
Mass Number197
G-Factor
1.02 ± 0.04
Half Life
19.8915 ± 0.0019 h
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1936
Parity-

197Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

198Pt

Abundance
7.356 ± 0.13
Relative Atomic Mass
197.967896718 ± 0.000002254 Da
Mass Number198
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

198Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%
α (α emission)%

199Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
198.970597022 ± 0.000002317 Da
Mass Number199
G-Factor
Half Life
30.8 ± 0.21 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity-

199Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

200Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
199.971444609 ± 0.000021588 Da
Mass Number200
G-Factor
0
Half Life
12.6 ± 0.3 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1957
Parity+

200Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

201Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
200.974513305 ± 0.000053788 Da
Mass Number201
G-Factor
Half Life
2.5 ± 0.1 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1962
Parity-

201Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

202Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
201.975639 ± 0.000027 Da
Mass Number202
G-Factor
0
Half Life
44 ± 15 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1992
Parity+

202Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

203Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
202.979055 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number203
G-Factor
Half Life
22 ± 4 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2008
Parity-

203Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

204Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
203.981084 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number204
G-Factor
0
Half Life
10.3 ± 1.4 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2008
Parity+

204Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

205Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
204.986237 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number205
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity+

205Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

206Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
205.99008 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number206
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

206Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

207Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
206.995556 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number207
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

207Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

208Pt

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
207.999463 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number208
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

208Pt Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

History

Platinum was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts. Antonio de Ulloa published his findings about platinum in 1748, but Sir Charles Wood also investigated the metal in 1741. First reference to it as a new metal was made by William Brownrigg in 1750. From the Spanish word platina, meaning silver

DiscoverersJulius Scaliger
Discovery LocationItaly
Discovery Year1735
Etymology (Name Origin)Spanish: platina (little silver).
PronunciationPLAT-n-em (English)
Platinum is considered to be non-toxic
Platinum exists in higher abundances on the Moon and in meteorites

Uses

The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions. Platinum is used in jewelry, decoration and dental work. Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets. Platinum-based anodes are used in ships, pipelines, and steel piers. Used in jewelry, to make crucible and special containers and as a catalyst. Used with cobalt to produce very strong magnets. Also to make standard weights and measures. Resists corrosion and acid attacks except aqua regia.

Sources

Produced from deposits of native, or elemental, platinum.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.005 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.000098 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0000009 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000005 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.506
2p4.4746
2s20.3702
3d13.5027
3p22.1139
3s23.0157
4d37.37
4f38.494
4p35.2696
4s34.3612
5d58.5925
5p53.5805
5s51.412
6s67.2486