Radium

Radium (Ra)

Radium is the 88th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of Ra and atomic number of 88. It has an atomic weight of (226) and a mass number of 201. Radium has eighty-eight protons and one hundred thirteen neutrons in its nucleus, and eighty-eight electrons in seven shells. It is located in group two, period seven and block s of the periodic table. Radioactive metallic transuranic element, belongs to group 2 of the periodic table. Most stable isotope, Ra-226 has a half-life of 1602 years, which decays into radon. Isolated from pitchblende in 1898 Marie and Pierre Curie.
Atomic Number88
Atomic Weight226
Mass Number201
Group2
Period7
Blocks
Protons88 p+
Neutrons113 n0
Electrons88 e-
Animated Bohr Model of Ra (Radium)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
215 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
201 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
148 pm
Crystal Radius
162 pm
Van der Waals Radius
283 pm
Density
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Radium020406080100120140160180200220240260280300pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
5.278424 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of Ra (Radium)
Heat of Vaporization
113 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
9.6 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
159 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2
Bohr Model: Ra (Radium)
Valence Electrons2
Lewis Structure: Ra (Radium)
Electron Configuration[Rn] 7s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 7s2
Enhanced Bohr Model of Ra (Radium)
Orbital Diagram of Ra (Radium)
Oxidation States2
Electronegativity
0.9
Electrophilicity Index
0.6982685447294388 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
Melting Point
969.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual

Radium is a Silver. Ra has a CPK of #ffffff, Jmol of #007d00, and MOLCAS GV of #007d00. The Appearance of Element 88 is silvery white metallic.

Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery white metallic
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
1 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.000001 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Type
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The lattice angles of Radium are π/2, π/2, π/2.

Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic ()
Lattice Constant
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
Classification

The CAS Group of Radium is IIA. The IUPAC Group of Ra is IIA. The Glawe Number of Element 88 is 13. The Mendeleev Number of Radium (Ra) is 10. The Pettifor Number of Radium is 13. The Geochemical Class of Ra is U/Th decay series. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 88 is litophile.

CategoryAlkaline earth metals, Alkaline earth metals
CAS GroupIIA
IUPAC GroupIIA
Glawe Number13
Mendeleev Number10
Pettifor Number13
Geochemical ClassU/Th decay series
Goldschmidt Classlitophile

Other

The Dipole Polarizability of Radium is 246 plus or minus 4 a₀. The Allotropes of Ra is . The Neutron Cross Section of Element 88 is 13. The Quantum Numbers of Radium (Ra) is 1S0. The Space Group of Radium is 229 (Im_3m).

Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
246 ± 4 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
13
Neutron Mass Absorption
Quantum Numbers1S0
Space Group229 (Im_3m)

Isotopes of Radium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes35
Natural Isotopes0

201Ra

Mass Number201
Neutron Number113
Relative Atomic Mass
201.012814699 ± 0.000021794 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
20 ± 30 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2005
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

202Ra

Mass Number202
Neutron Number114
Relative Atomic Mass
202.009742305 ± 0.000016122 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4.1 ± 1.1 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2005
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

203Ra

Mass Number203
Neutron Number115
Relative Atomic Mass
203.009233907 ± 0.0000104 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
36 ± 13 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1996
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

204Ra

Mass Number204
Neutron Number116
Relative Atomic Mass
204.006506855 ± 0.00000958 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
60 ± 9 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1995
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

205Ra

Mass Number205
Neutron Number117
Relative Atomic Mass
205.006230692 ± 0.000024446 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
220 ± 50 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

206Ra

Mass Number206
Neutron Number118
Relative Atomic Mass
206.003827842 ± 0.000019332 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
240 ± 20 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

207Ra

Mass Number207
Neutron Number119
Relative Atomic Mass
207.00377242 ± 0.000062572 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.38 ± 0.18 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1967
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)86%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

208Ra

Mass Number208
Neutron Number120
Relative Atomic Mass
208.001855012 ± 0.000009686 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.11 ± 0.045 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)87%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

209Ra

Mass Number209
Neutron Number121
Relative Atomic Mass
209.001994902 ± 0.000006169 Da
G-Factor
0.3444 ± 0.0052
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4.71 ± 0.08 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.39 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1967
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

210Ra

Mass Number210
Neutron Number122
Relative Atomic Mass
210.000475406 ± 0.000009868 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4 ± 0.1 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

211Ra

Mass Number211
Neutron Number123
Relative Atomic Mass
211.000893049 ± 0.000005331 Da
G-Factor
0.3496 ± 0.0016
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
12.6 ± 1.2 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.46 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1967
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

212Ra

Mass Number212
Neutron Number124
Relative Atomic Mass
211.999786619 ± 0.000011007 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
13 ± 0.2 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

213Ra

Mass Number213
Neutron Number125
Relative Atomic Mass
213.000370971 ± 0.00001054 Da
G-Factor
1.22 ± 0.004
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.73 ± 0.05 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1955
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)87%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)13%

214Ra

Mass Number214
Neutron Number126
Relative Atomic Mass
214.00009956 ± 0.000005636 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.437 ± 0.016 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)99.941%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)0.059%

215Ra

Mass Number215
Neutron Number127
Relative Atomic Mass
215.002718208 ± 0.00000773 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.669 ± 0.009 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

216Ra

Mass Number216
Neutron Number128
Relative Atomic Mass
216.003533534 ± 0.000008592 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
172 ± 7 ns
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)1%

217Ra

Mass Number217
Neutron Number129
Relative Atomic Mass
217.006322676 ± 0.000007564 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.95 ± 0.12 us
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

218Ra

Mass Number218
Neutron Number130
Relative Atomic Mass
218.007134297 ± 0.000010528 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
25.91 ± 0.14 us
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

219Ra

Mass Number219
Neutron Number131
Relative Atomic Mass
219.010084715 ± 0.000007315 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
9 ± 2 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1952
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

220Ra

Mass Number220
Neutron Number132
Relative Atomic Mass
220.011027542 ± 0.000008153 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
18.1 ± 1.2 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

221Ra

Mass Number221
Neutron Number133
Relative Atomic Mass
221.013917293 ± 0.00000497 Da
G-Factor
-0.0716 ± 0.00068
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
25 ± 4 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.92 ± 0.06
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
14C1.2%

222Ra

Mass Number222
Neutron Number134
Relative Atomic Mass
222.015373371 ± 0.000004781 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
33.6 ± 0.4 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1948
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
14C3%

223Ra

Mass Number223
Neutron Number135
Relative Atomic Mass
223.018500648 ± 0.000002243 Da
G-Factor
0.17946666666667 ± 0.00053333333333333
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
11.4352 ± 0.001 d
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.22 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1905
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
14C8.9%

224Ra

Mass Number224
Neutron Number136
Relative Atomic Mass
224.020210361 ± 0.000001944 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
3.6316 ± 0.0014 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1902
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
14C4%

225Ra

Mass Number225
Neutron Number137
Relative Atomic Mass
225.023610502 ± 0.000002786 Da
G-Factor
-1.46 ± 0.004
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
14.82 ± 0.19 d
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1947
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

226Ra

Mass Number226
Neutron Number138
Relative Atomic Mass
226.025408186 ± 0.000002068 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.6 ± 0.007 ky
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1898
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
14C2.6%
(double β decay)

227Ra

Mass Number227
Neutron Number139
Relative Atomic Mass
227.029176205 ± 0.000002089 Da
G-Factor
-0.26733333333333 ± 0.00073333333333333
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
42.2 ± 0.5 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.53 ± 0.06
Discovery Year1953
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

228Ra

Mass Number228
Neutron Number140
Relative Atomic Mass
228.031068574 ± 0.000002141 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
5.75 ± 0.03 y
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1907
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

229Ra

Mass Number229
Neutron Number141
Relative Atomic Mass
229.034956703 ± 0.000016576 Da
G-Factor
0.19968 ± 0.00056
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4 ± 0.2 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
2.99 ± 0.12
Discovery Year1975
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

230Ra

Mass Number230
Neutron Number142
Relative Atomic Mass
230.037054776 ± 0.000011053 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
93 ± 2 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

231Ra

Mass Number231
Neutron Number143
Relative Atomic Mass
231.041027085 ± 0.000012206 Da
G-Factor
-0.14216 ± 0.00044
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
104 ± 1 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

232Ra

Mass Number232
Neutron Number144
Relative Atomic Mass
232.043475267 ± 0.000009823 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4 ± 0.3 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

233Ra

Mass Number233
Neutron Number145
Relative Atomic Mass
233.04759457 ± 0.000009235 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
30 ± 5 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1990
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

234Ra

Mass Number234
Neutron Number146
Relative Atomic Mass
234.0503821 ± 0.000009 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
30 ± 10 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1990
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β SF (β-delayed fission)

235Ra

Mass Number235
Neutron Number147
Relative Atomic Mass
235.05489 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
Radium226

History

Radium was discovered by Marie Curie and Pierre Curie in 1898. They extracted the radium compound from a uraninite sample. Radium was isolated in its metallic state by Marie Curie and André-Louis Debierne in 1910 through the electrolysis of radium chloride by using a mercury cathode and distilling in an atmosphere of hydrogen gas. From the Latin word radius meaning ray

DiscoverersPierre and Marie Curie
Discovery LocationFrance
Discovery Year1898
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: radius (ray).
PronunciationRAY-di-em (English)
Radium is highly radioactive and carcinogenic
Radium imparts a carmine red color to a flame

Uses

Radium was formerly used in self-luminous paints for watches, nuclear panels, aircraft switches, clocks, and instrument dials. Radium chloride was used in medicine to produce radon gas which in turn was used as a cancer treatment. The isotope 223Ra is currently under investigation for use in medicine as a cancer treatment of bone metastasis. Used in treating cancer because of the gamma rays it gives off.

Sources

Found in uranium ores at 1 part per 3 million parts uranium.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.0000009 mg/kg
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
0.000000000089 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0.0000000000001 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
Natural Abundance (Sun)
Abundance in Universe
0 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

Also Known As

  • Ra
  • element 88
  • 88Ra

Translations

  • Frenchradium
  • Norwegian Bokmålradium
  • Russianрадий
  • GermanRadium
  • Italianradio
  • Spanishradio
  • Norwegian Nynorskradium
  • Hungarianrádium
  • Amharicራዲየም
  • AragoneseRadio
  • Arabicراديوم
  • Egyptian Arabicراديوم
  • AzerbaijaniRadium
  • BelarusianРадый
  • Bulgarianрадий
  • Banglaরেডিয়াম
  • BretonRadiom
  • Bosnianradij
  • Catalanradi
  • CorsicanRadiu
  • Czechradium
  • ChuvashРади
  • WelshRadiwm
  • Danishradium
  • Greekράδιο
  • Esperantoradiumo
  • Estonianraadium
  • Basqueradio
  • Persianرادیم
  • Finnishradium
  • FriulianRadi
  • IrishRaidiam
  • Galicianradio
  • Manxraadjum
  • Hakka Chineseradium
  • Hebrewרדיום
  • Fiji HindiRadium
  • Croatianradij
  • Haitian CreoleRadyòm
  • Armenianռադիում
  • Interlinguaradium
  • Indonesianradium
  • Idoradiumo
  • Icelandicradín
  • Japaneseラジウム
  • Lojbandircyjinme
  • JavaneseRadium
  • KazakhРадий
  • Korean라듐
  • KurdishRadyûm
  • KomiРадий
  • Latinradium
  • LuxembourgishRadium
  • LigurianRadio
  • Lithuanianradis
  • Latvianrādijs
  • Māorikonuruke
  • Macedonianрадиум
  • Malayalamറേഡിയം
  • Marathiरेडियम
  • Western MariРадий
  • MalayRadium
  • Burmeseရေဒီယမ်
  • Low GermanRadium
  • Newariरेडियम
  • Dutchradium
  • OccitanRadi
  • Punjabiਰੇਡੀਅਮ
  • Polishrad
  • Western Panjabiریڈیم
  • Portugueserádio
  • QuechuaRadyu q'illay
  • Romanianradiu
  • YakutРадиум
  • Sicilianradiu
  • Serbo-CroatianRadijum
  • Slovakrádium
  • Slovenianradij
  • Serbianрадијум
  • Saterland FrisianRadium
  • Swedishradium
  • SwahiliRadi
  • Tamilரேடியம்
  • Thaiเรเดียม
  • Turkishradyum
  • Uyghurرادىي
  • Ukrainianрадій
  • Urduریڈیم
  • VepsRadii
  • Vietnameseradi
  • WarayRadyo
  • KalmykРадиум
  • Yiddishראדיום
  • YorubaRadiomu
  • Chinese
  • Georgianრადიუმი
  • TagalogRadyo
  • CebuanoRadyo
  • Central Kurdishڕادیۆم
  • Hindiतेजातु
  • Odiaରେଡ଼ିଅମ
  • Gujaratiરેડિયમ
  • PiedmonteseRadio (element)
  • TatarРадий
  • SomaliRaadhiyaam
  • Swiss GermanRadium
  • Literary Chinese
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)Рад
  • Cantonese
  • AlbanianRadiumi
  • UzbekRadiy
  • Chinese (China)
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • AromanianRadiu
  • LimburgishRadium
  • AfrikaansRadium
  • KyrgyzРадий
  • cdoLòi
  • FaroeseRadium
  • Nepaliरेडियम
  • Sanskritरेडियम
  • Malteseradju
  • Scottish GaelicRadium
  • LombardRadio
  • Paliरेडियम
  • Gan Chinese
  • Teluguరేడియం
  • Min Nan ChineseRadium
  • azbرادیوم
  • Mongolianради
  • Tibetanརེ་ཌིམ།
  • Bhojpuriरेडियम
  • AsturianRadiu
  • Chinese (Macao SAR China)
  • Chinese (Malaysia)
  • Chinese (Singapore)
  • Portuguese (Brazil)rádio
  • MinangkabauRadium
  • kbpRadɩyɔm
  • Lingua Franca Novaradio
  • Northern FrisianRaadium
  • oloRadii
  • Wu Chinese
  • TajikРадий
  • Kannadaರೇಡಿಯಮ್
  • SardinianRàdiu (elementu chìmicu)
  • BashkirРадий
  • Moroccan Arabicراديوم
  • Pashtoراډيوم
  • BikolRadyo (elemento)
  • CornishRadiom
  • BalineseRadium