Rhenium

Rhenium (Re)

Silvery-white metallic transition element. Obtained as a by-product of molybdenum refinement. Rhenium-molybdenum alloys are superconducting.
Atomic Number75
Atomic Weight186.207
Mass Number187
Group7
Period6
Blockd
Protons75 p+
Neutrons112 n0
Electrons75 e-
Rhenium single crystal bar and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
131 pm
Metallic Radius
128 pm
Ionic Radius
63 pm
Crystal Radius
77 pm
Van der Waals radius
216 pm
Density
20.8 g/cm³
Boiling Point
5,900 K
Melting Point
3,453 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 13, 2
Electronegativity
1.9
Electrophilicity
1.0369041726709 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
7.83352 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
704 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
774 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
25.48 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.137 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
62 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States-3, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Color
Gray
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
2.76 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIIA
IUPAC GroupVIIB
Glawe Number58
Mendeleev Number57
Pettifor Number59
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classsiderophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.0007 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.000004 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe2×10-8%

Isotopes of Rhenium

Stable Isotopes
185Re 187Re
Unstable Isotopes
160Re 161Re 162Re 163Re 164Re 165Re 166Re 167Re 168Re 169Re 170Re 171Re 172Re 173Re 174Re 175Re 176Re 177Re 178Re 179Re 180Re 181Re 182Re 183Re 184Re 186Re 188Re 189Re 190Re 191Re 192Re 193Re 194Re

History

In 1908, Japanese chemist Masataka Ogawa announced that he discovered the 43rd element. However, later analysis indicated the presence of rhenium (element 75), not element 43. In 1922, Walter Noddack, Ida Eva Tacke and Otto Berg announced its separation from gadolinite and gave it the present name. From the Latin word Rhenus meaning Rhine

DiscoverersWalter Noddack, Ida Tacke, Otto Berg
Discovery LocationGermany
Discovery Year1925
Name OriginLatin: Rhenus, the Rhine River.
Very little is known about the toxicity of rhenium
Chile has the world's largest rhenium reserves

Uses

Rhenium is widely used as filaments for mass spectrographs and ion gauges. It is also used with platinum as catalysts in the production of lead-free, high-octane gasoline. Nickel-based superalloys of rhenium are used in the combustion chambers, turbine blades, and exhaust nozzles of jet engines. Mixed with tungsten or platinum to make filaments for mass spectrographs. Its main value is as a trace alloying agent for hardening metal components that are subjected to continuous frictional forces.

Sources

Found in small amounts in gadolinite and molybdenite. Has a very high melting point.