Rutherfordium

Rutherfordium (Rf)

Rutherfordium is the 104th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of Rf and atomic number of 104. It has an atomic weight of (267) and a mass number of 253. Rutherfordium has one hundred four protons and one hundred forty-nine neutrons in its nucleus, and one hundred four electrons in seven shells. It is located in group four, period seven and block d of the periodic table. Radioactive transactinide element. Expected to have similar chemical properties to those displayed by hafnium. Rf-260 was discovered by the Joint Nuclear Research Institute at Dubna (U.S.S.R.) in 1964. Researchers at Berkeley discovered Unq-257 and Unq-258 in 1964.
Atomic Number104
Atomic Weight267
Mass Number253
Group4
Period7
Blockd
Protons104 p+
Neutrons149 n0
Electrons104 e-
Animated Bohr Model of Rf (Rutherfordium)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
157 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
Crystal Radius
Van der Waals Radius
Density
23.3 g/cm³

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
Ionization Energies of Rf (Rutherfordium)
Heat of Vaporization
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2
Bohr Model: Rf (Rutherfordium)
Valence Electrons2
Lewis Structure: Rf (Rutherfordium)
Electron Configuration[Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 5f14 6d2 7s2
Enhanced Bohr Model of Rf (Rutherfordium)
Orbital Diagram of Rf (Rutherfordium)
Oxidation States4
Electronegativity
Electrophilicity Index
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
Melting Point
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual

Rutherfordium is a Colorless. Rf has a Jmol of #cc0059.

Color
Colorless
Appearance
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
Type
Electrical Conductivity
Electrical Resistivity
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Type
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The lattice angles of Rutherfordium is .

Crystal Structure ()
Lattice Constant
Lattice Angles
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
Classification

The CAS Group of Rutherfordium is IVA. The IUPAC Group of Rf is IVB. The Mendeleev Number of Element 104 is 46. The Goldschmidt Class of Rutherfordium (Rf) is synthetic.

CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIVA
IUPAC GroupIVB
Glawe Number
Mendeleev Number46
Pettifor Number
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classsynthetic

Other

The Dipole Polarizability of Rutherfordium is 112 plus or minus 10 a₀. The Allotropes of Rf is . The Quantum Numbers of Element 104 is 3F2. The Space Group of Rutherfordium (Rf) is ().

Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
112 ± 10 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Quantum Numbers3F2
Space Group ()

Isotopes of Rutherfordium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes16
Natural Isotopes0

253Rf

Mass Number253
Neutron Number149
Relative Atomic Mass
253.100528 ± 0.00044 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
13 ± 5 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%
α (α emission)

254Rf

Mass Number254
Neutron Number150
Relative Atomic Mass
254.100055 ± 0.000304 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
22.9 ± 1 us
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%
α (α emission)1.5%

255Rf

Mass Number255
Neutron Number151
Relative Atomic Mass
255.101267 ± 0.000194 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.63 ± 0.05 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1975
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)52.8%
SF (spontaneous fission)47.2%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)6%

256Rf

Mass Number256
Neutron Number152
Relative Atomic Mass
256.101151464 ± 0.00001916 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
6.6 ± 0.05 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1975
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)99.69%
α (α emission)0.31%

257Rf

Mass Number257
Neutron Number153
Relative Atomic Mass
257.102916796 ± 0.000011612 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
5 ± 0.2 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)89.3%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)9.4%
SF (spontaneous fission)1.3%

258Rf

Mass Number258
Neutron Number154
Relative Atomic Mass
258.103429895 ± 0.000017288 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
12.5 ± 0.5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)95.1%
α (α emission)4.9%

259Rf

Mass Number259
Neutron Number155
Relative Atomic Mass
259.105601 ± 0.000078 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.63 ± 0.26 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)85%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)15%
SF (spontaneous fission)3%

260Rf

Mass Number260
Neutron Number156
Relative Atomic Mass
260.10644 ± 0.000215 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
21 ± 1 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

261Rf

Mass Number261
Neutron Number157
Relative Atomic Mass
261.108769591 ± 0.000070492 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.1 ± 0.2 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)82%
α (α emission)18%

262Rf

Mass Number262
Neutron Number158
Relative Atomic Mass
262.109923 ± 0.00024 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
250 ± 100 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%

263Rf

Mass Number263
Neutron Number159
Relative Atomic Mass
263.112461 ± 0.000164 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
11 ± 3 m
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2003
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%
α (α emission)

264Rf

Mass Number264
Neutron Number160
Relative Atomic Mass
264.113876 ± 0.000387 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)

265Rf

Mass Number265
Neutron Number161
Relative Atomic Mass
265.116683 ± 0.000387 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.6 ± 0.6 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%
α (α emission)

266Rf

Mass Number266
Neutron Number162
Relative Atomic Mass
266.118236 ± 0.000443 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)
SF (spontaneous fission)

267Rf

Mass Number267
Neutron Number163
Relative Atomic Mass
267.121787 ± 0.000617 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.5 ± 1.5 h
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2004
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%

268Rf

Mass Number268
Neutron Number164
Relative Atomic Mass
268.123968 ± 0.000711 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)
SF (spontaneous fission)
Electron shell 104 Rutherfordium

History

Rutherfordium was reportedly first detected in 1964 at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research at Dubna. The element was synthesized by Albert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola and Pirkko Eskola in 1968 at the University of California, Berkeley. It was produced by the bombardment of californium with carbon atoms. Named after Ernest Rutherford, the physicist and chemist from New Zealand

DiscoverersA. Ghiorso, et al
Discovery LocationUnited States
Discovery Year1969
Etymology (Name Origin)Named in honor of Ernest Rutherford
Pronunciationruth-er-FORD-i-em (English)
Rutherfordium is harmful due to its radioactivity
Rutherfordium is the first transactinide element

Uses

Rutherfordium is used for scientific research purposes only. It has no significant commercial applications.

Sources

Made by bombarding californium-249 with beams of carbon-12 and 13, which produced an isotope with half lives of 4+ and 3 sec.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
0 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0 %
Abundance in Universe
0 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

Also Known As

  • element 104
  • kurchatovium
  • Rf
  • Ku
  • unnilquadium
  • Unq

Translations

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  • Frenchrutherfordium
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