Rutherfordium

Rutherfordium (Rf)

Radioactive transactinide element. Expected to have similar chemical properties to those displayed by hafnium. Rf-260 was discovered by the Joint Nuclear Research Institute at Dubna (U.S.S.R.) in 1964. Researchers at Berkeley discovered Unq-257 and Unq-258 in 1964.
Atomic Number104
Atomic Weight267
Mass Number253
Group4
Period7
Blockd
Protons104 p+
Neutrons149 n0
Electrons104 e-
Electron shell 104 Rutherfordium.svg Animated Bohr Model of Rf (Rutherfordium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Rf (Rutherfordium) Bohr Model: Rf (Rutherfordium) Orbital Diagram of Rf (Rutherfordium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
157 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
Crystal Radius
Van der Waals Radius
Density
23.3 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
Heat of Vaporization
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2
Valence Electrons4
Electron Configuration[Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2
Oxidation States4
Electronegativity
Electrophilicity
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
Melting Point
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Colorless
Appearance
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
Type
Electrical Conductivity
Electrical Resistivity
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Type
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal Structure ()
Lattice Constant
Lattice Angles
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIVA
IUPAC GroupIVB
Glawe Number
Mendeleev Number46
Pettifor Number
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classsynthetic
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
112 ± 10 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Quantum Numbers3F2
Space Group ()

Isotopes of Rutherfordium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes16
Radioactive Isotopes16

253Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
253.100528 ± 0.00044 Da
Mass Number253
G-Factor
Half Life
13 ± 5 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity

253Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%
α (α emission)%

254Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
254.100055 ± 0.000304 Da
Mass Number254
G-Factor
0
Half Life
22.9 ± 1 us
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

254Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%
α (α emission)1.5%

255Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
255.101267 ± 0.000194 Da
Mass Number255
G-Factor
Half Life
1.63 ± 0.05 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1975
Parity-

255Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)52.8%
SF (spontaneous fission)47.2%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)6%

256Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
256.101151464 ± 0.00001916 Da
Mass Number256
G-Factor
0
Half Life
6.6 ± 0.05 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1975
Parity+

256Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)99.69%
α (α emission)0.31%

257Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
257.102916796 ± 0.000011612 Da
Mass Number257
G-Factor
Half Life
5 ± 0.2 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

257Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)89.3%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)9.4%
SF (spontaneous fission)1.3%

258Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
258.103429895 ± 0.000017288 Da
Mass Number258
G-Factor
0
Half Life
12.5 ± 0.5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

258Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)95.1%
α (α emission)4.9%

259Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
259.105601 ± 0.000078 Da
Mass Number259
G-Factor
Half Life
2.63 ± 0.26 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

259Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)85%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)15%
SF (spontaneous fission)3%

260Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
260.10644 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number260
G-Factor
0
Half Life
21 ± 1 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

260Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%
α (α emission)%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

261Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
261.108769591 ± 0.000070492 Da
Mass Number261
G-Factor
Half Life
2.1 ± 0.2 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

261Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)82%
α (α emission)18%

262Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
262.109923 ± 0.00024 Da
Mass Number262
G-Factor
0
Half Life
250 ± 100 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

262Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%

263Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
263.112461 ± 0.000164 Da
Mass Number263
G-Factor
Half Life
11 ± 3 m
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2003
Parity

263Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%
α (α emission)%

264Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
264.113876 ± 0.000387 Da
Mass Number264
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

264Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%

265Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
265.116683 ± 0.000387 Da
Mass Number265
G-Factor
Half Life
1.6 ± 0.6 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

265Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%
α (α emission)%

266Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
266.118236 ± 0.000443 Da
Mass Number266
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

266Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%
SF (spontaneous fission)%

267Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
267.121787 ± 0.000617 Da
Mass Number267
G-Factor
Half Life
2.5 ± 1.5 h
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2004
Parity

267Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
SF (spontaneous fission)100%

268Rf

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
268.123968 ± 0.000711 Da
Mass Number268
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

268Rf Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%
SF (spontaneous fission)%

History

Rutherfordium was reportedly first detected in 1964 at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research at Dubna. The element was synthesized by Albert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola and Pirkko Eskola in 1968 at the University of California, Berkeley. It was produced by the bombardment of californium with carbon atoms. Named after Ernest Rutherford, the physicist and chemist from New Zealand

DiscoverersA. Ghiorso, et al
Discovery LocationUnited States
Discovery Year1969
Etymology (Name Origin)Named in honor of Ernest Rutherford
Pronunciationruth-er-FORD-i-em (English)
Rutherfordium is harmful due to its radioactivity
Rutherfordium is the first transactinide element

Uses

Rutherfordium is used for scientific research purposes only. It has no significant commercial applications.

Sources

Made by bombarding californium-249 with beams of carbon-12 and 13, which produced an isotope with half lives of 4+ and 3 sec.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
Abundance in Human Body
0 %
Abundance in Meteor
0 %
Abundance in Sun
0 %
Abundance in Universe
0 %

Nuclear Screening Constants