Rutherfordium

Rutherfordium (Rf)

Radioactive transactinide element. Expected to have similar chemical properties to those displayed by hafnium. Rf-260 was discovered by the Joint Nuclear Research Institute at Dubna (U.S.S.R.) in 1964. Researchers at Berkeley discovered Unq-257 and Unq-258 in 1964.
Atomic Number104
Atomic Weight267
Mass Number253
Group4
Period7
Blockd
Protons104 p+
Neutrons149 n0
Electrons104 e-
Electron shell 104 Rutherfordium.svg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
157 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
Crystal Radius
Van der Waals radius
Density
23.3 g/cm³
Boiling Point
Melting Point
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2
Electronegativity
Electrophilicity
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
Heat of Vaporization
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
112 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States4
Color
Colorless
Crystal Structure ()
Lattice Constant
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIVA
IUPAC GroupIVB
Glawe Number
Mendeleev Number46
Pettifor Number
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classsynthetic
Radioactivity
RadioactiveYes ☢️
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universena

Isotopes of Rutherfordium

Stable Isotopes
Unstable Isotopes
253Rf 254Rf 255Rf 256Rf 257Rf 258Rf 259Rf 260Rf 261Rf 262Rf 263Rf 264Rf 265Rf 266Rf 267Rf 268Rf

History

Rutherfordium was reportedly first detected in 1964 at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research at Dubna. The element was synthesized by Albert Ghiorso, Matti Nurmia, James Andrew Harris, Kari Eskola and Pirkko Eskola in 1968 at the University of California, Berkeley. It was produced by the bombardment of californium with carbon atoms. Named after Ernest Rutherford, the physicist and chemist from New Zealand

DiscoverersA. Ghiorso, et al
Discovery LocationUnited States
Discovery Year1969
Name OriginNamed in honor of Ernest Rutherford
Rutherfordium is harmful due to its radioactivity
Rutherfordium is the first transactinide element

Uses

Rutherfordium is used for scientific research purposes only. It has no significant commercial applications.

Sources

Made by bombarding californium-249 with beams of carbon-12 and 13, which produced an isotope with half lives of 4+ and 3 sec.