Ruthenium

Ruthenium (Ru)

Hard white metallic transition element. Found with platinum, used as a catalyst in some platinum alloys. Dissolves in fused alkalis, and is not attacked by acids. Reacts with halogens and oxygen at high temperatures. Isolated in 1844 by K.K. Klaus.
Atomic Number44
Atomic Weight101.07
Mass Number102
Group8
Period5
Blockd
Protons44 p+
Neutrons58 n0
Electrons44 e-
Ruthenium a half bar.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
130 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
125 pm
Metallic Radius
125 pm
Ionic Radius
68 pm
Crystal Radius
82 pm
Van der Waals radius
213 pm
Density
12.1 g/cm³
Boiling Point
4,173 K
Melting Point
2,583 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Electronegativity
2.2
Electrophilicity
1.4011669093178 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
774 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
Heat of Vaporization
Heat of Fusion
25.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
650.6 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
24.06 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.238 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
751.4 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
72 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
2.7 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIIIA
IUPAC GroupVIII
Glawe Number61
Mendeleev Number60
Pettifor Number63
Geochemical Classnoble metal
Goldschmidt Classsiderophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.001 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.0000007 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe4×10-7%

Isotopes of Ruthenium

Stable Isotopes
96Ru 98Ru 99Ru 100Ru 101Ru 102Ru 104Ru
Unstable Isotopes
87Ru 88Ru 89Ru 90Ru 91Ru 92Ru 93Ru 94Ru 95Ru 97Ru 103Ru 105Ru 106Ru 107Ru 108Ru 109Ru 110Ru 111Ru 112Ru 113Ru 114Ru 115Ru 116Ru 117Ru 118Ru 119Ru 120Ru

History

Jędrzej Śniadecki isolated the element in 1807, but his work was not ratified. Jöns Berzelius and Gottfried Osann nearly discovered ruthenium in 1827. In 1844, Karl Ernst Claus confirmed that there was a new element and isolated ruthenium from the platinum residues of the rouble production while he was working in Kazan University, Kazan. From the Latin word Ruthenia, Russia

DiscoverersKarl Klaus
Discovery LocationRussia
Discovery Year1844
Name OriginLatin: Ruthenia (Russia).
Ruthenium is a suspected carcinogen and its compounds strongly stain the skin
Ruthenium is unaffected by air, water and acids

Uses

Ruthenium is used in platinum and palladium alloys to make wear-resistant electrical contacts. Ruthenium dioxide and lead and bismuth ruthenates are used in thick-film chip resistors. Fountain pen nibs are frequently tipped with alloys containing ruthenium. Ruthenium is a versatile catalyst. Used to harden platinum and palladium. Aircraft magnetos use platinum alloy with 10% ruthenium.

Sources

Found in pentlandite and pyroxinite.