Silikon (Kiesel †)

Silikon (Kiesel †) (Si)

chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14
Atomic Number14
Atomic Weight28.085
Massagetal28
Group14
Period3
Blockp
proton14 p+
neutron14 n0
elektron14 e-
Animated Bohr model of Si (Silikon (Kiesel †))

Physical Property

Atoomradius
110 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
116 pm
Metallic Radius
117 pm
Ioonradius
26 pm
Crystal Radius
40 pm
Van der Waals radius
210 pm
density
2,3296 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Silikon (Kiesel †)0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210pmAtoomradiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energie
proton affinity
837 kJ/mol
electron affinity
1,3895211 eV/particle
ionization energy
8,151683 eV/particle
ionization energy of Si (Silikon (Kiesel †))
Verdampingswarmte
383 kJ/mol
smeltingswarmte
50,6 kJ/mol
Vormingsentalpie
450 kJ/mol
elektron
Elektronskil2, 8, 4
Bohr model: Si (Silikon (Kiesel †))
Valenselektrone4
Lewisteorie: Si (Silikon (Kiesel †))
elektronkonfigurasie[Ne] 3s2 3p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
Enhanced Bohr model of Si (Silikon (Kiesel †))
Orbital Diagram of Si (Silikon (Kiesel †))
Oksidasietoestand-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegatiwiteit
1.9
Electrophilicity Index
1,6827934805482991 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3 538,15 K
Melting Point
1 687,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
kleur
Gray
appearancecrystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces
Brekingsindeks
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0,0000026 1/K
molar heat capacity
19,99 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,712 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
Geleidingsvermoë
0,001 MS/m
Elektriese resistiwiteit
0,001 m Ω
superconductivity
Magnetisme
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,0000000016 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,0000000000449 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,00000373
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureTetrahedral Packing (DIA)
lattice constant
5,43 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
6,5 MPa
Massamodulus
100 GPa
Skuifmodulus
Young se modulus
47 GPa
Poisson se verhouding
Spoed van klank
2 200 m/s
classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number85
Mendeleev Number88
Pettifor Number85
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
814,1 kJ/mol
polarizability
37,3 ± 0,7 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
305 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
0,166
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0002
quantum number3P0
Ruimtegroep227 (Fd_3m)

Isotopes of Silicon

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes21
Natural Isotopes3
Isotopic Composition2892.25%2892.25%294.67%294.67%303.07%303.07%

22Si

Massagetal22
neutron number8
relative atomic mass
22,036114 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
28,7 ± 1,1 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1987
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)62%
2p (2-proton emission)0.7%

23Si

Massagetal23
neutron number9
relative atomic mass
23,025711 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
42,3 ± 0,4 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)88%
2p (2-proton emission)3.6%

24Si

Massagetal24
neutron number10
relative atomic mass
24,01153543 ± 0,000020904 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
143,2 ± 2,1 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1979
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)34.5%

25Si

Massagetal25
neutron number11
relative atomic mass
25,004108798 ± 0,000010735 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
220,6 ± 1 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1963
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)35%

26Si

Massagetal26
neutron number12
relative atomic mass
25,992333818 ± 0,000000115 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
2,2453 ± 0,0007 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1960
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

27Si

Massagetal27
neutron number13
relative atomic mass
26,986704687 ± 0,000000115 Da
g-factor
0,34608 ± 0,00012
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
4,117 ± 0,014 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,063 ± 0,014
ontdekkingsdatum1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

28Si

Massagetal28
neutron number14
relative atomic mass
27,97692653442 ± 0,00000000055 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
92,2545 ± 0,0037
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1920
parity+

29Si

Massagetal29
neutron number15
relative atomic mass
28,97649466434 ± 0,0000000006 Da
g-factor
-1,110104 ± 0,000006
natural abundance
4,672 ± 0,016
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1920
parity+

30Si

Massagetal30
neutron number16
relative atomic mass
29,973770137 ± 0,000000023 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
3,0735 ± 0,0021
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1924
parity+

31Si

Massagetal31
neutron number17
relative atomic mass
30,975363196 ± 0,000000046 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
157,16 ± 0,2 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1934
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

32Si

Massagetal32
neutron number18
relative atomic mass
31,974151538 ± 0,00000032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
157 ± 7 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

33Si

Massagetal33
neutron number19
relative atomic mass
32,977976964 ± 0,00000075 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
6,18 ± 0,18 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1971
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

34Si

Massagetal34
neutron number20
relative atomic mass
33,978538045 ± 0,00000086 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
2,77 ± 0,2 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1971
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

35Si

Massagetal35
neutron number21
relative atomic mass
34,984550111 ± 0,000038494 Da
g-factor
0,46828571428571 ± 0,0011428571428571
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
780 ± 120 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1971
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)5%

36Si

Massagetal36
neutron number22
relative atomic mass
35,986649271 ± 0,000077077 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
503 ± 2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1971
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12%

37Si

Massagetal37
neutron number23
relative atomic mass
36,992945191 ± 0,000122179 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
141 ± 3,5 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1979
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17%
2n (2-neutron emission)

38Si

Massagetal38
neutron number24
relative atomic mass
37,995523 ± 0,0001125 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
63 ± 8 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1979
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)25%

39Si

Massagetal39
neutron number25
relative atomic mass
39,002491 ± 0,0001455 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
41,2 ± 4,1 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1979
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)33%
2n (2-neutron emission)

40Si

Massagetal40
neutron number26
relative atomic mass
40,006083641 ± 0,000130962 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
31,2 ± 2,6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1989
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)38%
2n (2-neutron emission)

41Si

Massagetal41
neutron number27
relative atomic mass
41,014171 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
20 ± 2,5 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1989
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)55%
2n (2-neutron emission)

42Si

Massagetal42
neutron number28
relative atomic mass
42,018078 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
12,5 ± 3,5 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1990
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

43Si

Massagetal43
neutron number29
relative atomic mass
43,026119 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2002
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

44Si

Massagetal44
neutron number30
relative atomic mass
44,031466 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum2007
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

45Si

Massagetal45
neutron number31
relative atomic mass
45,039818 ± 0,000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
SiliconCroda
Silicon-unit-cell-3D-balls

geskiedenis

Ontdek deurJöns Berzelius
ligging van ontdekkingSweden
ontdekkingsdatum1824
etimologieLatin: silex, silicus, (flint).
uitspraakSIL-i-ken (Engels)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
282 000 mg/kg
natural abundance (oseaan)
2,2 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
0,026 %
natural abundance (Meteoroïde)
14 %
natural abundance (Son)
0,09 %
Abundance in Universe
0,07 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.4255
2p4.055
2s4.98
3p9.7148
3s9.0968