Phosphorus

Phosphorus (P)

Non-metallic element belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Has a multiple allotropic forms. Essential element for living organisms. It was discovered by Brandt in 1669.
Atomic Number15
Atomic Weight30.973761998
Mass Number31
Group15
Period3
Blockp
Protons15 p+
Neutrons16 n0
Electrons15 e-
Phosphor.JPG Animated Bohr Model of P (Phosphorus) Enhanced Bohr Model of P (Phosphorus) Bohr Model: P (Phosphorus) Orbital Diagram of P (Phosphorus)

Properties

Atomic Radius
100 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
111 pm
Metallic Radius
110 pm
Ionic Radius
44 pm
Crystal Radius
58 pm
Van der Waals Radius
180 pm
Density
1.823 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
626.8 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
0.746607 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
10.486686 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
49.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
2.51 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
316.5 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 5
Valence Electrons5
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p3
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Electronegativity
2.19
Electrophilicity
1.6194282359497416 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
553.65 K
Melting Point
317.3 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
994.15 K
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Colorless
Appearancecolourless, waxy white, yellow, scarlet, red, violet, black
Refractive Index
1.001212
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
23.824 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.769 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
10 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.0000001 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000113 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.00000000035 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000206
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Triclinic (CUB)
Lattice Constant
7.17 Å
Lattice Angles1.25384, 1.57725, 1.24896
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
11 GPa
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
Classification
CategoryOther nonmetals, Nonmetals
CAS GroupVB
IUPAC GroupVA
Glawe Number89
Mendeleev Number94
Pettifor Number90
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
604.8 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
25 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
185 a₀
AllotropesWhite Phosphorus, Red Phosphorus, Black Phosphorus
Neutron Cross Section
0.18
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0002
Quantum Numbers4S3/2
Space Group2 (P-1)

Isotopes of Phosphorus

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes23
Radioactive Isotopes21

24P

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
24.036522 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number24
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

24P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

25P

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
25.021675 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number25
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

25P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

26P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
26.01178 ± 0.00021 Da
Mass Number26
G-Factor
Half Life
43.6 ± 0.3 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity

26P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)35.1%
2p (2-proton emission)1.99%

27P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
26.999292499 ± 0.000009662 Da
Mass Number27
G-Factor
Half Life
260 ± 80 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

27P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.07%

28P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
27.99232646 ± 0.000001231 Da
Mass Number28
G-Factor
0.104 ± 0.001
Half Life
270.3 ± 0.5 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
0.137 ± 0.014
Discovery Year1953
Parity+

28P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.0013%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.00086%

29P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
28.981800368 ± 0.000000385 Da
Mass Number29
G-Factor
2.4688 ± 0.0006
Half Life
4.102 ± 0.004 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1941
Parity+

29P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

30P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
29.97831349 ± 0.000000069 Da
Mass Number30
G-Factor
Half Life
2.5 ± 0.0017 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

30P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

31P

Abundance
100
Relative Atomic Mass
30.97376199768 ± 0.0000000008 Da
Mass Number31
G-Factor
2.26185 ± 0.00001
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

32P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
31.973907643 ± 0.000000042 Da
Mass Number32
G-Factor
-0.2528 ± 0.0002
Half Life
14.269 ± 0.007 d
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

32P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

33P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
32.971725692 ± 0.00000117 Da
Mass Number33
G-Factor
Half Life
25.35 ± 0.11 d
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

33P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

34P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
33.973645886 ± 0.00000087 Da
Mass Number34
G-Factor
Half Life
12.43 ± 0.1 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1945
Parity+

34P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

35P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
34.973314045 ± 0.000002003 Da
Mass Number35
G-Factor
Half Life
47.3 ± 0.8 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

35P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

36P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
35.97825961 ± 0.000014078 Da
Mass Number36
G-Factor
Half Life
5.6 ± 0.3 s
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity-

36P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

37P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
36.979606942 ± 0.000040738 Da
Mass Number37
G-Factor
Half Life
2.31 ± 0.13 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

37P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

38P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
37.984303105 ± 0.000077918 Da
Mass Number38
G-Factor
Half Life
640 ± 140 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity-

38P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12%

39P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
38.986285865 ± 0.000120929 Da
Mass Number39
G-Factor
Half Life
282 ± 24 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

39P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)26%

40P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
39.991262221 ± 0.000089755 Da
Mass Number40
G-Factor
Half Life
150 ± 8 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity-

40P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)15.8%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

41P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
40.994654 ± 0.000129 Da
Mass Number41
G-Factor
Half Life
101 ± 5 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

41P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)30%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

42P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
42.00117214 ± 0.000101996 Da
Mass Number42
G-Factor
Half Life
48.5 ± 1.5 ms
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity

42P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)50%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

43P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
43.005411 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number43
G-Factor
Half Life
35.8 ± 1.3 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1989
Parity+

43P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)100%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

44P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
44.011927 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number44
G-Factor
Half Life
18.5 ± 2.5 ms
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1989
Parity

44P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

45P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
45.017134 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number45
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1990
Parity+

45P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

46P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
46.02452 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number46
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1990
Parity

46P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

47P

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
47.030929 ± 0.000644 Da
Mass Number47
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

47P Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

History

Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669, in Hamburg, Germany, preparing it from urine. In 1769, Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate is found in bones, and they obtained elemental phosphorus from bone ash. Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777. From the Greek phosphoros, light bearing; ancient name for the planet Venus when appearing before sunrise

DiscoverersHennig Brand
Discovery LocationGermany
Discovery Year1669
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: phosphoros, (bringer of light).
PronunciationFOS-fer-es (English)
White phosphorus is highly toxic while red phosphorus is considered non-toxic
Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus

Uses

Many fertilisers contain a high proportion of phosphorus and are manufactured from concentrated phosphoric acids. Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics and incendiary shells. Phosphorus is also used in steel manufacture and in the production of phosphor bronze. Used in the production of fertilizers and detergents. Some is used in fireworks, safety matches, and incendiary weapons. Also some applications for it and some of its compounds which glow in the dark.

Sources

Found most often in phosphate rock. Pure phosphorus is obtained by heating a mixture of phosphate rock, coke, and silica to about 1450 °C.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,050 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.06 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
1.1 %
Abundance in Meteor
0.11 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0007 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0007 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.4422
2p4.0388
2s5.175
3p10.1136
3s9.3582