Silicij[um]

Silicij[um] (Si)

hemijski element sa simbolom Si i atomskim brojem 14
Atomic Number14
Atomic Weight28.085
Maseni broj28
Group14
Period3
Blockp
Proton14 p+
Neutron14 n0
Elektron14 e-
Animated Bohrov model atoma of Si (Silicij[um])

Physical Property

Atomski Radijus
110 pm
Molarni volumen
covalent radius
116 pm
Metallic Radius
117 pm
Ionski radijus
26 pm
Crystal Radius
40 pm
Van der Waalsov radijus
210 pm
gustoća
2,3296 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Silicij[um]0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210pmAtomski RadijusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waalsov radijus

Chemical Property

energija
proton affinity
837 kJ/mol
electron affinity
1,3895211 eV/particle
ionization energy
8,151683 eV/particle
ionization energy of Si (Silicij[um])
Toplota isparavanja
383 kJ/mol
toplota topljenja
50,6 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
450 kJ/mol
Elektron
electron shell2, 8, 4
Bohrov model atoma: Si (Silicij[um])
Valentni elektron4
Lewis structure: Si (Silicij[um])
electron configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
Enhanced Bohrov model atoma of Si (Silicij[um])
Orbital Diagram of Si (Silicij[um])
oksidacijsko stanje-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegativnost
1.9
Electrophilicity Index
1,6827934805482991 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
agregatno stanjeSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3.538,15 K
Melting Point
1.687,15 K
critical pressure
Kritična temperatura
Trojna tačka
appearance
boja
Gray
appearancecrystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces
Indeks prelamanja
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0,0000026 1/K
molar heat capacity
19,99 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,712 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
Specifična električna provodljivost
0,001 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,001 m Ω
Superprovodljivost
Magnetizam
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,0000000016 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,0000000000449 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,00000373
magnetic ordering
Kirijeva tačka
Néel temperature
struktura
Crystal StructureTetrahedral Packing (DIA)
lattice constant
5,43 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
Tvrdoća
6,5 MPa
bulk modulus
100 GPa
shear modulus
Young's modulus
47 GPa
Poisson's ratio
Brzina zvuka
2.200 m/s
klasifikacija
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number85
Mendeleev Number88
Pettifor Number85
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
814,1 kJ/mol
polarizability
37,3 ± 0,7 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
305 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
0,166
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0002
Kvantni brojevi3P0
space group227 (Fd_3m)

Isotopes of Silicon

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes21
Natural Isotopes3
Isotopic Composition2892.25%2892.25%294.67%294.67%303.07%303.07%

22Si

Maseni broj22
broj neutrona8
relative atomic mass
22,036114 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
28,7 ± 1,1 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1987
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)62%
2p (2-proton emission)0.7%

23Si

Maseni broj23
broj neutrona9
relative atomic mass
23,025711 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
42,3 ± 0,4 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)88%
2p (2-proton emission)3.6%

24Si

Maseni broj24
broj neutrona10
relative atomic mass
24,01153543 ± 0,000020904 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
143,2 ± 2,1 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1979
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)34.5%

25Si

Maseni broj25
broj neutrona11
relative atomic mass
25,004108798 ± 0,000010735 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
220,6 ± 1 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1963
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)35%

26Si

Maseni broj26
broj neutrona12
relative atomic mass
25,992333818 ± 0,000000115 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,2453 ± 0,0007 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1960
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

27Si

Maseni broj27
broj neutrona13
relative atomic mass
26,986704687 ± 0,000000115 Da
g-factor
0,34608 ± 0,00012
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
4,117 ± 0,014 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,063 ± 0,014
datum otkrića1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

28Si

Maseni broj28
broj neutrona14
relative atomic mass
27,97692653442 ± 0,00000000055 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
92,2545 ± 0,0037
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1920
parity+

29Si

Maseni broj29
broj neutrona15
relative atomic mass
28,97649466434 ± 0,0000000006 Da
g-factor
-1,110104 ± 0,000006
natural abundance
4,672 ± 0,016
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1920
parity+

30Si

Maseni broj30
broj neutrona16
relative atomic mass
29,973770137 ± 0,000000023 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
3,0735 ± 0,0021
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1924
parity+

31Si

Maseni broj31
broj neutrona17
relative atomic mass
30,975363196 ± 0,000000046 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
157,16 ± 0,2 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1934
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

32Si

Maseni broj32
broj neutrona18
relative atomic mass
31,974151538 ± 0,00000032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
157 ± 7 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

33Si

Maseni broj33
broj neutrona19
relative atomic mass
32,977976964 ± 0,00000075 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
6,18 ± 0,18 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1971
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

34Si

Maseni broj34
broj neutrona20
relative atomic mass
33,978538045 ± 0,00000086 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,77 ± 0,2 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1971
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

35Si

Maseni broj35
broj neutrona21
relative atomic mass
34,984550111 ± 0,000038494 Da
g-factor
0,46828571428571 ± 0,0011428571428571
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
780 ± 120 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1971
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)5%

36Si

Maseni broj36
broj neutrona22
relative atomic mass
35,986649271 ± 0,000077077 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
503 ± 2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1971
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12%

37Si

Maseni broj37
broj neutrona23
relative atomic mass
36,992945191 ± 0,000122179 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
141 ± 3,5 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1979
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17%
2n (2-neutron emission)

38Si

Maseni broj38
broj neutrona24
relative atomic mass
37,995523 ± 0,0001125 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
63 ± 8 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1979
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)25%

39Si

Maseni broj39
broj neutrona25
relative atomic mass
39,002491 ± 0,0001455 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
41,2 ± 4,1 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1979
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)33%
2n (2-neutron emission)

40Si

Maseni broj40
broj neutrona26
relative atomic mass
40,006083641 ± 0,000130962 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
31,2 ± 2,6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1989
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)38%
2n (2-neutron emission)

41Si

Maseni broj41
broj neutrona27
relative atomic mass
41,014171 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
20 ± 2,5 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1989
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)55%
2n (2-neutron emission)

42Si

Maseni broj42
broj neutrona28
relative atomic mass
42,018078 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
12,5 ± 3,5 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1990
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

43Si

Maseni broj43
broj neutrona29
relative atomic mass
43,026119 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića2002
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

44Si

Maseni broj44
broj neutrona30
relative atomic mass
44,031466 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića2007
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

45Si

Maseni broj45
broj neutrona31
relative atomic mass
45,039818 ± 0,000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
SiliconCroda
Silicon-unit-cell-3D-balls

historija

otkrivač ili izumiteljJöns Berzelius
mjesto otkrićaSweden
datum otkrića1824
EtimologijaLatin: silex, silicus, (flint).
pronunciationSIL-i-ken (engleski)

izvor

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
282.000 mg/kg
natural abundance (okean)
2,2 mg/L
natural abundance (ljudsko tijelo)
0,026 %
natural abundance (Meteoroidi)
14 %
natural abundance (Sunce)
0,09 %
Abundance in Universe
0,07 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.4255
2p4.055
2s4.98
3p9.7148
3s9.0968