Silici

Silici (Si)

chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14
Atomic Number14
Atomic Weight28.085
Rhif màs28
Group14
Period3
Blockp
Proton14 p+
Niwtron14 n0
Electron14 e-
Animated Bohr model of Si (Silici)

Nodwedd Ffisegol

Atomic Radius
110 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
116 pm
Metallic Radius
117 pm
ionic radius
26 pm
Crystal Radius
40 pm
Van der Waals radius
210 pm
density
2.3296 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Silici0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Nodwedd Gemegol

egni
proton affinity
837 kJ/mol
electron affinity
1.3895211 eV/particle
ionization energy
8.151683 eV/particle
ionization energy of Si (Silici)
enthalpy of vaporization
383 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
50.6 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
450 kJ/mol
Electron
plisgyn yr electron2, 8, 4
Bohr model: Si (Silici)
valence electron4
Lewis structure: Si (Silici)
trefn yr electronnau[Ne] 3s2 3p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
Enhanced Bohr model of Si (Silici)
Orbital Diagram of Si (Silici)
Cyflwr ocsidiad-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegatifedd
1.9
Electrophilicity Index
1.6827934805482991 eV/particle
cyflwr sylfaenol mater
cyflwr materSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3,538.15 K
Melting Point
1,687.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
lliw
Gray
appearancecrystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces
Mynegrif plygiant
nodwedd ffisegol gwrthrych
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0.0000026 1/K
molar heat capacity
19.99 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.712 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
dargludedd trydanol
0.001 MS/m
Gwrthedd
0.001 m Ω
superconductivity
magnetism
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000016 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.0000000000449 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.00000373
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
strwythur
Crystal StructureTetrahedral Packing (DIA)
lattice constant
5.43 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
nodwedd mecanyddol deunyddiau
hardness
6.5 MPa
bulk modulus
100 GPa
shear modulus
Young's modulus
47 GPa
Poisson's ratio
speed of sound
2,200 m/s
classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number85
Mendeleev Number88
Pettifor Number85
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
814.1 kJ/mol
polarizability
37.3 ± 0.7 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
305 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
0.166
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0002
quantum number3P0
space group227 (Fd_3m)

Isotopes of Silicon

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes21
Natural Isotopes3
Isotopic Composition2892.25%2892.25%294.67%294.67%303.07%303.07%

22Si

Rhif màs22
neutron number8
relative atomic mass
22.036114 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
28.7 ± 1.1 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1987
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)62%
2p (2-proton emission)0.7%

23Si

Rhif màs23
neutron number9
relative atomic mass
23.025711 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
42.3 ± 0.4 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)88%
2p (2-proton emission)3.6%

24Si

Rhif màs24
neutron number10
relative atomic mass
24.01153543 ± 0.000020904 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
143.2 ± 2.1 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1979
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)34.5%

25Si

Rhif màs25
neutron number11
relative atomic mass
25.004108798 ± 0.000010735 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
220.6 ± 1 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1963
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)35%

26Si

Rhif màs26
neutron number12
relative atomic mass
25.992333818 ± 0.000000115 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
2.2453 ± 0.0007 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1960
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

27Si

Rhif màs27
neutron number13
relative atomic mass
26.986704687 ± 0.000000115 Da
g-factor
0.34608 ± 0.00012
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
4.117 ± 0.014 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.063 ± 0.014
dyddiad darganfod1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

28Si

Rhif màs28
neutron number14
relative atomic mass
27.97692653442 ± 0.00000000055 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
92.2545 ± 0.0037
Dadfeilio ymbelydrolstable isotope
Hanner oesNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1920
parity+

29Si

Rhif màs29
neutron number15
relative atomic mass
28.97649466434 ± 0.0000000006 Da
g-factor
-1.110104 ± 0.000006
natural abundance
4.672 ± 0.016
Dadfeilio ymbelydrolstable isotope
Hanner oesNot Radioactive ☢️
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1920
parity+

30Si

Rhif màs30
neutron number16
relative atomic mass
29.973770137 ± 0.000000023 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
3.0735 ± 0.0021
Dadfeilio ymbelydrolstable isotope
Hanner oesNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1924
parity+

31Si

Rhif màs31
neutron number17
relative atomic mass
30.975363196 ± 0.000000046 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
157.16 ± 0.2 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1934
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

32Si

Rhif màs32
neutron number18
relative atomic mass
31.974151538 ± 0.00000032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
157 ± 7 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

33Si

Rhif màs33
neutron number19
relative atomic mass
32.977976964 ± 0.00000075 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
6.18 ± 0.18 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1971
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

34Si

Rhif màs34
neutron number20
relative atomic mass
33.978538045 ± 0.00000086 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
2.77 ± 0.2 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1971
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

35Si

Rhif màs35
neutron number21
relative atomic mass
34.984550111 ± 0.000038494 Da
g-factor
0.46828571428571 ± 0.0011428571428571
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
780 ± 120 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1971
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)5%

36Si

Rhif màs36
neutron number22
relative atomic mass
35.986649271 ± 0.000077077 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
503 ± 2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1971
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12%

37Si

Rhif màs37
neutron number23
relative atomic mass
36.992945191 ± 0.000122179 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
141 ± 3.5 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1979
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17%
2n (2-neutron emission)

38Si

Rhif màs38
neutron number24
relative atomic mass
37.995523 ± 0.0001125 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
63 ± 8 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1979
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)25%

39Si

Rhif màs39
neutron number25
relative atomic mass
39.002491 ± 0.0001455 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
41.2 ± 4.1 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1979
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)33%
2n (2-neutron emission)

40Si

Rhif màs40
neutron number26
relative atomic mass
40.006083641 ± 0.000130962 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
31.2 ± 2.6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1989
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)38%
2n (2-neutron emission)

41Si

Rhif màs41
neutron number27
relative atomic mass
41.014171 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
20 ± 2.5 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1989
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)55%
2n (2-neutron emission)

42Si

Rhif màs42
neutron number28
relative atomic mass
42.018078 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
12.5 ± 3.5 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1990
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

43Si

Rhif màs43
neutron number29
relative atomic mass
43.026119 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod2002
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

44Si

Rhif màs44
neutron number30
relative atomic mass
44.031466 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod2007
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

45Si

Rhif màs45
neutron number31
relative atomic mass
45.039818 ± 0.000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
SiliconCroda
Silicon-unit-cell-3D-balls

hanes

darganfyddwr neu ddyfeisiwrJöns Berzelius
man darganfodSweden
dyddiad darganfod1824
geirdarddiadLatin: silex, silicus, (flint).
ynganiadSIL-i-ken (Saesneg)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
282,000 mg/kg
natural abundance (cefnfor)
2.2 mg/L
natural abundance (corff dynol)
0.026 %
natural abundance (Awyrfaen)
14 %
natural abundance (Haul)
0.09 %
Abundance in Universe
0.07 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.4255
2p4.055
2s4.98
3p9.7148
3s9.0968