Silicon

Silicon (Si)

Silicon is the 14th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of Si and atomic number of 14. It has an atomic weight of 28.085 and a mass number of 28. Silicon has fourteen protons and fourteen neutrons in its nucleus, and fourteen electrons in three shells. It is located in group fourteen, period three and block p of the periodic table. Metalloid element belonging to group 14 of the periodic table. It is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust, making up 25.7% of it by weight. Chemically less reactive than carbon. First identified by Lavoisier in 1787 and first isolated in 1823 by Berzelius.
Atomic Number14
Atomic Weight28.085
Mass Number28
Group14
Period3
Blockp
Protons14 p+
Neutrons14 n0
Electrons14 e-
Animated Bohr Model of Si (Silicon)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
110 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
116 pm
Metallic Radius
117 pm
Ionic Radius
26 pm
Crystal Radius
40 pm
Van der Waals Radius
210 pm
Density
2.3296 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Silicon0153045607590105120135150165180195210pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
837 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
1.3895211 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
8.151683 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of Si (Silicon)
Heat of Vaporization
383 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
50.6 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
450 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 4
Bohr Model: Si (Silicon)
Valence Electrons4
Lewis Structure: Si (Silicon)
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
Enhanced Bohr Model of Si (Silicon)
Orbital Diagram of Si (Silicon)
Oxidation States-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegativity
1.9
Electrophilicity Index
1.6827934805482991 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
3,538.15 K
Melting Point
1,687.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual

Silicon is a Gray. Si has a CPK of #daa520, Jmol of #f0c8a0, and MOLCAS GV of #f0c8a0. The Appearance of Element 14 is crystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces.

Color
Gray
Appearancecrystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000026 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
19.99 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.712 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeSemiconductor
Electrical Conductivity
0.001 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.001 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000016 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.0000000000449 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.00000373
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Silicon is DIA. The lattice constant of Si is 5.43 Å. The lattice angles of Element 14 are π/2, π/2, π/2.

Crystal StructureTetrahedral Packing (DIA)
Lattice Constant
5.43 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties

Silicon has a Mohs hardness of 6.5 MPa. The Bulk Modulus of Si is 100 GPa. The Young Modulus of Element 14 is 47 GPa. The Speed of Sound of Silicon (Si) is 2200 m/s.

Hardness
6.5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
100 GPa
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
47 GPa
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
2,200 m/s
Classification

The CAS Group of Silicon is IVB. The IUPAC Group of Si is IVA. The Glawe Number of Element 14 is 85. The Mendeleev Number of Silicon (Si) is 88. The Pettifor Number of Silicon is 85. The Geochemical Class of Si is major. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 14 is litophile.

CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number85
Mendeleev Number88
Pettifor Number85
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt Classlitophile

Other

The Gas Basicity of Silicon is 814.1 kJ/mol. The Dipole Polarizability of Si is 37.3 plus or minus 0.7 a₀. Element 14 has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 305 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 308 a₀. The Allotropes of Silicon (Si) is . The Neutron Cross Section of Silicon is 0.166. The Neutron Mass Absorption of Si is 0.0002. The Quantum Numbers of Element 14 is 3P0. The Space Group of Silicon (Si) is 227 (Fd_3m).

Gas Basicity
814.1 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
37.3 ± 0.7 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
305 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
0.166
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0002
Quantum Numbers3P0
Space Group227 (Fd_3m)

Isotopes of Silicon

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes21
Natural Isotopes3
Isotopic Composition2892.25%2892.25%294.67%294.67%303.07%303.07%

22Si

Mass Number22
Neutron Number8
Relative Atomic Mass
22.036114 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
28.7 ± 1.1 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)62%
2p (2-proton emission)0.7%

23Si

Mass Number23
Neutron Number9
Relative Atomic Mass
23.025711 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
42.3 ± 0.4 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)88%
2p (2-proton emission)3.6%

24Si

Mass Number24
Neutron Number10
Relative Atomic Mass
24.01153543 ± 0.000020904 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
143.2 ± 2.1 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)34.5%

25Si

Mass Number25
Neutron Number11
Relative Atomic Mass
25.004108798 ± 0.000010735 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
220.6 ± 1 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1963
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)35%

26Si

Mass Number26
Neutron Number12
Relative Atomic Mass
25.992333818 ± 0.000000115 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.2453 ± 0.0007 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1960
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

27Si

Mass Number27
Neutron Number13
Relative Atomic Mass
26.986704687 ± 0.000000115 Da
G-Factor
0.34608 ± 0.00012
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4.117 ± 0.014 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.063 ± 0.014
Discovery Year1939
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

28Si

Mass Number28
Neutron Number14
Relative Atomic Mass
27.97692653442 ± 0.00000000055 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
92.2545 ± 0.0037
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

29Si

Mass Number29
Neutron Number15
Relative Atomic Mass
28.97649466434 ± 0.0000000006 Da
G-Factor
-1.110104 ± 0.000006
Abundance
4.672 ± 0.016
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

30Si

Mass Number30
Neutron Number16
Relative Atomic Mass
29.973770137 ± 0.000000023 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
3.0735 ± 0.0021
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1924
Parity+

31Si

Mass Number31
Neutron Number17
Relative Atomic Mass
30.975363196 ± 0.000000046 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
157.16 ± 0.2 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

32Si

Mass Number32
Neutron Number18
Relative Atomic Mass
31.974151538 ± 0.00000032 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
157 ± 7 y
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1953
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

33Si

Mass Number33
Neutron Number19
Relative Atomic Mass
32.977976964 ± 0.00000075 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
6.18 ± 0.18 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

34Si

Mass Number34
Neutron Number20
Relative Atomic Mass
33.978538045 ± 0.00000086 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.77 ± 0.2 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

35Si

Mass Number35
Neutron Number21
Relative Atomic Mass
34.984550111 ± 0.000038494 Da
G-Factor
0.46828571428571 ± 0.0011428571428571
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
780 ± 120 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)5%

36Si

Mass Number36
Neutron Number22
Relative Atomic Mass
35.986649271 ± 0.000077077 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
503 ± 2 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12%

37Si

Mass Number37
Neutron Number23
Relative Atomic Mass
36.992945191 ± 0.000122179 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
141 ± 3.5 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17%
2n (2-neutron emission)

38Si

Mass Number38
Neutron Number24
Relative Atomic Mass
37.995523 ± 0.0001125 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
63 ± 8 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)25%

39Si

Mass Number39
Neutron Number25
Relative Atomic Mass
39.002491 ± 0.0001455 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
41.2 ± 4.1 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)33%
2n (2-neutron emission)

40Si

Mass Number40
Neutron Number26
Relative Atomic Mass
40.006083641 ± 0.000130962 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
31.2 ± 2.6 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1989
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)38%
2n (2-neutron emission)

41Si

Mass Number41
Neutron Number27
Relative Atomic Mass
41.014171 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
20 ± 2.5 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1989
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)55%
2n (2-neutron emission)

42Si

Mass Number42
Neutron Number28
Relative Atomic Mass
42.018078 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
12.5 ± 3.5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1990
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

43Si

Mass Number43
Neutron Number29
Relative Atomic Mass
43.026119 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2002
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

44Si

Mass Number44
Neutron Number30
Relative Atomic Mass
44.031466 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2007
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

45Si

Mass Number45
Neutron Number31
Relative Atomic Mass
45.039818 ± 0.000644 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
SiliconCroda
Silicon-unit-cell-3D-balls

History

In 1800, Sir Humphry Davy thought silica to be a compound and not an element; but in 1811, Gay Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard probably prepared impure amorphous silicon by heating potassium with silicon tetrafluoride. In 1824 Jöns Jakob Berzelius prepared amorphous silicon by the same general method. Henri Deville in 1854 first prepared crystalline silicon, the second allotropic form of the element. From the Latin word silex, silicis, flint

DiscoverersJöns Berzelius
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1824
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: silex, silicus, (flint).
PronunciationSIL-i-ken (English)
If breathed in as a fine silica/silicate dust, it may cause chronic respiratory problems
Silicon also has the unusual property that it expands as it freezes

Uses

In the form of sand and clay it is used to make concrete and brick; it is a useful refractory material for high-temperature work, and in the form of silicates it is used in making enamels, pottery, etc. Silica, as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass. Silicon chips are the basis of modern electronic and computing. Silicon carbide, more commonly called carborundum is used in abrasives. Used in glass as silicon dioxide (SiO2). Silicon carbide (SiC) is one of the hardest substances known and used in polishing. Also the crystalline form is used in semiconductors.

Sources

Makes up major portion of clay, granite, quartz (SiO2), and sand. Commercial production depends on a reaction between sand (SiO2) and carbon at a temperature of around 2200 °C.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
282,000 mg/kg
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
2.2 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0.026 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
14 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0.09 %
Abundance in Universe
0.07 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.4255
2p4.055
2s4.98
3p9.7148
3s9.0968

Also Known As

  • Si
  • element 14
  • 14Si

Translations

  • Italiansilicio
  • Norwegian Bokmålsilisium
  • Spanishsilicio
  • Polishkrzem
  • Russianкремний
  • Frenchsilicium
  • GermanSilicium
  • Dutchsilicium
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Czechkřemík
  • Afrikaanssilikon
  • Amharicሲልከን
  • AragoneseSilicio
  • Arabicسيليكون
  • AsturianSiliciu
  • AzerbaijaniSilisium
  • Belarusianкрэмній
  • Bulgarianсилиций
  • Banglaসিলিকন
  • BretonSilisiom
  • Bosniansilicij
  • Catalansilici
  • Central Kurdishسیلیکۆن
  • CorsicanSiliciu
  • ChuvashКремни
  • WelshSilicon
  • Danishsilicium
  • Divehiސިލިކަން
  • Greekπυρίτιο
  • Esperantosilicio
  • Estonianräni
  • Basquesilizio
  • Persianسیلیسیم
  • Finnishpii
  • Northern FrisianSilitsium
  • FriulianSilici
  • IrishSileacan
  • GalicianSilicio
  • GuaraniKuarepotiatã
  • Gujaratiસિલિકોન
  • ManxShillagon
  • Hakka ChineseSi̍t
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  • Hebrewצורן
  • Hindiसिलिकॉन
  • Fiji HindiSilicon
  • CroatianSilicij
  • Haitian CreoleSilisyòm
  • Hungarianszilícium
  • Armenianսիլիցիում
  • Interlinguasilicium
  • Indonesiansilikon
  • Idosiliko
  • Icelandickísill
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  • Lojbancancmu
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  • Korean규소
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  • Latinsilicium
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  • TatarКремний
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  • Newariसिलिकन
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  • Min Nan ChineseSi-lí-khóng
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  • SardinianSilìciu
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  • oloPii
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