Silicium

Silicium (Si)

chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14
Atomic Number14
Atomic Weight28.085
mass number28
Group14
Period3
Blockp
proton14 p+
neutron14 n0
electron14 e-
Animated Bohr model of Si (Silicium)

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
110 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
116 pm
Metallic Radius
117 pm
ionic radius
26 pm
Crystal Radius
40 pm
Van der Waals radius
210 pm
density
2.3296 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Silicium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energia
proton affinity
837 kJ/mol
electron affinity
1.3895211 eV/particle
ionization energy
8.151683 eV/particle
ionization energy of Si (Silicium)
enthalpy of vaporization
383 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
50.6 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
450 kJ/mol
electron
Tegimen electronicum2, 8, 4
Bohr model: Si (Silicium)
valence electron4
Lewis structure: Si (Silicium)
electron configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
Enhanced Bohr model of Si (Silicium)
Orbital Diagram of Si (Silicium)
oxidation number-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
electronegativity
1.9
Electrophilicity Index
1.6827934805482991 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3538.15 K
Melting Point
1687.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
Punctum triplex
appearance
Color
Gray
appearancecrystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0.0000026 1/K
molar heat capacity
19.99 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.712 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
electrical conductivity
0.001 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.001 m Ω
Superconductrum
magnetism
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000016 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.0000000000449 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.00000373
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureTetrahedral Packing (DIA)
lattice constant
5.43 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
6.5 MPa
bulk modulus
100 GPa
shear modulus
Young's modulus
47 GPa
Poisson's ratio
celeritas soni
2200 m/s
classificare
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number85
Mendeleev Number88
Pettifor Number85
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
814.1 kJ/mol
polarizability
37.3 ± 0.7 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
305 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
0.166
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0002
quantum number3P0
space group227 (Fd_3m)

Isotopes of Silicon

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes21
Natural Isotopes3
Isotopic Composition2892.25%2892.25%294.67%294.67%303.07%303.07%

22Si

mass number22
neutron number8
relative atomic mass
22.036114 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
28.7 ± 1.1 ms
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1987
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)62%
2p (2-proton emission)0.7%

23Si

mass number23
neutron number9
relative atomic mass
23.025711 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
42.3 ± 0.4 ms
Volubilitas3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)88%
2p (2-proton emission)3.6%

24Si

mass number24
neutron number10
relative atomic mass
24.01153543 ± 0.000020904 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
143.2 ± 2.1 ms
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1979
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)34.5%

25Si

mass number25
neutron number11
relative atomic mass
25.004108798 ± 0.000010735 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
220.6 ± 1 ms
Volubilitas5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1963
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)35%

26Si

mass number26
neutron number12
relative atomic mass
25.992333818 ± 0.000000115 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.2453 ± 0.0007 s
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1960
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

27Si

mass number27
neutron number13
relative atomic mass
26.986704687 ± 0.000000115 Da
g-factor
0.34608 ± 0.00012
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.117 ± 0.014 s
Volubilitas5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.063 ± 0.014
repertus1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

28Si

mass number28
neutron number14
relative atomic mass
27.97692653442 ± 0.00000000055 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
92.2545 ± 0.0037
radioactivitasstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1920
parity+

29Si

mass number29
neutron number15
relative atomic mass
28.97649466434 ± 0.0000000006 Da
g-factor
-1.110104 ± 0.000006
natural abundance
4.672 ± 0.016
radioactivitasstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Volubilitas1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1920
parity+

30Si

mass number30
neutron number16
relative atomic mass
29.973770137 ± 0.000000023 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
3.0735 ± 0.0021
radioactivitasstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1924
parity+

31Si

mass number31
neutron number17
relative atomic mass
30.975363196 ± 0.000000046 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
157.16 ± 0.2 m
Volubilitas3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1934
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

32Si

mass number32
neutron number18
relative atomic mass
31.974151538 ± 0.00000032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
157 ± 7 y
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

33Si

mass number33
neutron number19
relative atomic mass
32.977976964 ± 0.00000075 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
6.18 ± 0.18 s
Volubilitas3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1971
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

34Si

mass number34
neutron number20
relative atomic mass
33.978538045 ± 0.00000086 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.77 ± 0.2 s
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1971
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

35Si

mass number35
neutron number21
relative atomic mass
34.984550111 ± 0.000038494 Da
g-factor
0.46828571428571 ± 0.0011428571428571
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
780 ± 120 ms
Volubilitas7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1971
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)5%

36Si

mass number36
neutron number22
relative atomic mass
35.986649271 ± 0.000077077 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
503 ± 2 ms
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1971
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12%

37Si

mass number37
neutron number23
relative atomic mass
36.992945191 ± 0.000122179 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
141 ± 3.5 ms
Volubilitas5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1979
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17%
2n (2-neutron emission)

38Si

mass number38
neutron number24
relative atomic mass
37.995523 ± 0.0001125 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
63 ± 8 ms
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1979
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)25%

39Si

mass number39
neutron number25
relative atomic mass
39.002491 ± 0.0001455 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
41.2 ± 4.1 ms
Volubilitas5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1979
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)33%
2n (2-neutron emission)

40Si

mass number40
neutron number26
relative atomic mass
40.006083641 ± 0.000130962 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
31.2 ± 2.6 ms
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1989
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)38%
2n (2-neutron emission)

41Si

mass number41
neutron number27
relative atomic mass
41.014171 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
20 ± 2.5 ms
Volubilitas7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus1989
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)55%
2n (2-neutron emission)

42Si

mass number42
neutron number28
relative atomic mass
42.018078 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
12.5 ± 3.5 ms
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus1990
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

43Si

mass number43
neutron number29
relative atomic mass
43.026119 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Volubilitas3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus2002
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

44Si

mass number44
neutron number30
relative atomic mass
44.031466 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Volubilitas0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
repertus2007
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

45Si

mass number45
neutron number31
relative atomic mass
45.039818 ± 0.000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivitas☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Volubilitas3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
repertus
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
SiliconCroda
Silicon-unit-cell-3D-balls

historia

inventorJöns Berzelius
location of discoverySweden
repertus1824
EtymologiaLatin: silex, silicus, (flint).
pronunciationSIL-i-ken (English)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
282000 mg/kg
natural abundance (Oceanus)
2.2 mg/L
natural abundance (Corpus humanum)
0.026 %
natural abundance (Meteoroides)
14 %
natural abundance (Sol)
0.09 %
Abundance in Universe
0.07 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.4255
2p4.055
2s4.98
3p9.7148
3s9.0968