Silikon

Silikon (Si)

unsur kimia dengan simbol Si dan nombor atom 14
Atomic Number14
Atomic Weight28.085
Nombor jisim28
Group14
Period3
Blockp
proton14 p+
neutron14 n0
Elektron14 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Si (Silikon)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
110 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
116 pm
Metallic Radius
117 pm
ionic radius
26 pm
Crystal Radius
40 pm
Jejari van der Waals
210 pm
ketumpatan
2.3296 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Silikon0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
837 kJ/mol
Pertalian elektron
1.3895211 eV/particle
ionization energy
8.151683 eV/particle
ionization energy of Si (Silikon)
Entalpi pengewapan
383 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
50.6 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
450 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 4
Model Bohr: Si (Silikon)
Elektron valens4
Teori ion Lewis: Si (Silikon)
tatarajah elektron[Ne] 3s2 3p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
Enhanced Model Bohr of Si (Silikon)
Orbital Diagram of Si (Silikon)
Keadaan pengoksidaan-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Keelektronegatifan
1.9
Electrophilicity Index
1.6827934805482991 eV/particle
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3,538.15 K
Melting Point
1,687.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
rupa
warna
Gray
rupacrystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
Pengembangan terma
0.0000026 1/K
molar heat capacity
19.99 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.712 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
0.001 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.001 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
kemagnetan
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000016 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.0000000000449 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.00000373
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureTetrahedral Packing (DIA)
lattice constant
5.43 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
6.5 MPa
Modulus pukal
100 GPa
shear modulus
Young's modulus
47 GPa
Nisbah Poisson
Kelajuan bunyi
2,200 m/s
pengelasan
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number85
Mendeleev Number88
Pettifor Number85
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
814.1 kJ/mol
polarizability
37.3 ± 0.7 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
305 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
0.166
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0002
Nombor kuantum3P0
space group227 (Fd_3m)

Isotopes of Silicon

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes21
Natural Isotopes3
Isotopic Composition2892.25%2892.25%294.67%294.67%303.07%303.07%

22Si

Nombor jisim22
nombor neutron8
jisim atom relatif
22.036114 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
28.7 ± 1.1 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1987
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)62%
2p (2-proton emission)0.7%

23Si

Nombor jisim23
nombor neutron9
jisim atom relatif
23.025711 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
42.3 ± 0.4 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1986
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)88%
2p (2-proton emission)3.6%

24Si

Nombor jisim24
nombor neutron10
jisim atom relatif
24.01153543 ± 0.000020904 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
143.2 ± 2.1 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1979
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)34.5%

25Si

Nombor jisim25
nombor neutron11
jisim atom relatif
25.004108798 ± 0.000010735 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
220.6 ± 1 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1963
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)35%

26Si

Nombor jisim26
nombor neutron12
jisim atom relatif
25.992333818 ± 0.000000115 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.2453 ± 0.0007 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1960
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

27Si

Nombor jisim27
nombor neutron13
jisim atom relatif
26.986704687 ± 0.000000115 Da
g-factor
0.34608 ± 0.00012
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.117 ± 0.014 s
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.063 ± 0.014
tarikh penemuan1939
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

28Si

Nombor jisim28
nombor neutron14
jisim atom relatif
27.97692653442 ± 0.00000000055 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
92.2545 ± 0.0037
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1920
parity+

29Si

Nombor jisim29
nombor neutron15
jisim atom relatif
28.97649466434 ± 0.0000000006 Da
g-factor
-1.110104 ± 0.000006
natural abundance
4.672 ± 0.016
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1920
parity+

30Si

Nombor jisim30
nombor neutron16
jisim atom relatif
29.973770137 ± 0.000000023 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
3.0735 ± 0.0021
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1924
parity+

31Si

Nombor jisim31
nombor neutron17
jisim atom relatif
30.975363196 ± 0.000000046 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
157.16 ± 0.2 m
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1934
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

32Si

Nombor jisim32
nombor neutron18
jisim atom relatif
31.974151538 ± 0.00000032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
157 ± 7 y
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1953
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

33Si

Nombor jisim33
nombor neutron19
jisim atom relatif
32.977976964 ± 0.00000075 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
6.18 ± 0.18 s
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1971
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

34Si

Nombor jisim34
nombor neutron20
jisim atom relatif
33.978538045 ± 0.00000086 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.77 ± 0.2 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1971
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

35Si

Nombor jisim35
nombor neutron21
jisim atom relatif
34.984550111 ± 0.000038494 Da
g-factor
0.46828571428571 ± 0.0011428571428571
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
780 ± 120 ms
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1971
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)5%

36Si

Nombor jisim36
nombor neutron22
jisim atom relatif
35.986649271 ± 0.000077077 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
503 ± 2 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1971
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12%

37Si

Nombor jisim37
nombor neutron23
jisim atom relatif
36.992945191 ± 0.000122179 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
141 ± 3.5 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1979
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17%
2n (2-neutron emission)

38Si

Nombor jisim38
nombor neutron24
jisim atom relatif
37.995523 ± 0.0001125 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
63 ± 8 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1979
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)25%

39Si

Nombor jisim39
nombor neutron25
jisim atom relatif
39.002491 ± 0.0001455 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
41.2 ± 4.1 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1979
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)33%
2n (2-neutron emission)

40Si

Nombor jisim40
nombor neutron26
jisim atom relatif
40.006083641 ± 0.000130962 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
31.2 ± 2.6 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1989
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)38%
2n (2-neutron emission)

41Si

Nombor jisim41
nombor neutron27
jisim atom relatif
41.014171 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
20 ± 2.5 ms
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1989
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)55%
2n (2-neutron emission)

42Si

Nombor jisim42
nombor neutron28
jisim atom relatif
42.018078 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
12.5 ± 3.5 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1990
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

43Si

Nombor jisim43
nombor neutron29
jisim atom relatif
43.026119 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2002
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

44Si

Nombor jisim44
nombor neutron30
jisim atom relatif
44.031466 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2007
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

45Si

Nombor jisim45
nombor neutron31
jisim atom relatif
45.039818 ± 0.000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
SiliconCroda
Silicon-unit-cell-3D-balls

sejarah

penemu atau perekaJöns Berzelius
tempat penemuanSweden
tarikh penemuan1824
EtimologiLatin: silex, silicus, (flint).
sebutanSIL-i-ken (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
282,000 mg/kg
natural abundance (lautan)
2.2 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
0.026 %
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
14 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.09 %
Abundance in Universe
0.07 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.4255
2p4.055
2s4.98
3p9.7148
3s9.0968