Silicium

Silicium (Si)

chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14
Atomic Number14
Atomic Weight28.085
Numri i masës28
Group14
Period3
Blockp
protoni14 p+
neutroni14 n0
elektroni14 e-
Animated Bohr model of Si (Silicium)

Tipar Fizik

Atomic Radius
110 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
116 pm
Metallic Radius
117 pm
ionic radius
26 pm
Crystal Radius
40 pm
Van der Waals radius
210 pm
density
2,3296 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Silicium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energjia
proton affinity
837 kJ/mol
electron affinity
1,3895211 eV/particle
ionization energy
8,151683 eV/particle
ionization energy of Si (Silicium)
enthalpy of vaporization
383 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
50,6 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
450 kJ/mol
elektroni
electron shell2, 8, 4
Bohr model: Si (Silicium)
valence electron4
Lewis structure: Si (Silicium)
konfigurimi i elektronit[Ne] 3s2 3p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
Enhanced Bohr model of Si (Silicium)
Orbital Diagram of Si (Silicium)
oxidation number-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegativiteti
1.9
Electrophilicity Index
1,6827934805482991 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
gjendja agregate e materiesSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3 538,15 K
Melting Point
1 687,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
Ngjyra
Gray
appearancecrystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0,0000026 1/K
molar heat capacity
19,99 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,712 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
electrical conductivity
0,001 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,001 m Ω
Superpërcjellshmëria
Magnetizimi
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,0000000016 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,0000000000449 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,00000373
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
strukturë
Crystal StructureTetrahedral Packing (DIA)
lattice constant
5,43 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
6,5 MPa
bulk modulus
100 GPa
shear modulus
Young's modulus
47 GPa
Poisson's ratio
Shpejtësia e zërit
2 200 m/s
klasifikim
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number85
Mendeleev Number88
Pettifor Number85
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
814,1 kJ/mol
polarizability
37,3 ± 0,7 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
305 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
0,166
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0002
numër kuantik3P0
space group227 (Fd_3m)

Isotopes of Silicon

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes21
Natural Isotopes3
Isotopic Composition2892.25%2892.25%294.67%294.67%303.07%303.07%

22Si

Numri i masës22
numri i neutroneve8
relative atomic mass
22,036114 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
28,7 ± 1,1 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1987
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)62%
2p (2-proton emission)0.7%

23Si

Numri i masës23
numri i neutroneve9
relative atomic mass
23,025711 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
42,3 ± 0,4 ms
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1986
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)88%
2p (2-proton emission)3.6%

24Si

Numri i masës24
numri i neutroneve10
relative atomic mass
24,01153543 ± 0,000020904 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
143,2 ± 2,1 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1979
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)34.5%

25Si

Numri i masës25
numri i neutroneve11
relative atomic mass
25,004108798 ± 0,000010735 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
220,6 ± 1 ms
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1963
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)35%

26Si

Numri i masës26
numri i neutroneve12
relative atomic mass
25,992333818 ± 0,000000115 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,2453 ± 0,0007 s
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1960
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

27Si

Numri i masës27
numri i neutroneve13
relative atomic mass
26,986704687 ± 0,000000115 Da
g-factor
0,34608 ± 0,00012
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4,117 ± 0,014 s
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,063 ± 0,014
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1939
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

28Si

Numri i masës28
numri i neutroneve14
relative atomic mass
27,97692653442 ± 0,00000000055 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
92,2545 ± 0,0037
Radioaktivitetstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1920
parity+

29Si

Numri i masës29
numri i neutroneve15
relative atomic mass
28,97649466434 ± 0,0000000006 Da
g-factor
-1,110104 ± 0,000006
natural abundance
4,672 ± 0,016
Radioaktivitetstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1920
parity+

30Si

Numri i masës30
numri i neutroneve16
relative atomic mass
29,973770137 ± 0,000000023 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
3,0735 ± 0,0021
Radioaktivitetstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1924
parity+

31Si

Numri i masës31
numri i neutroneve17
relative atomic mass
30,975363196 ± 0,000000046 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
157,16 ± 0,2 m
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1934
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

32Si

Numri i masës32
numri i neutroneve18
relative atomic mass
31,974151538 ± 0,00000032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
157 ± 7 y
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1953
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

33Si

Numri i masës33
numri i neutroneve19
relative atomic mass
32,977976964 ± 0,00000075 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
6,18 ± 0,18 s
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1971
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

34Si

Numri i masës34
numri i neutroneve20
relative atomic mass
33,978538045 ± 0,00000086 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,77 ± 0,2 s
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1971
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

35Si

Numri i masës35
numri i neutroneve21
relative atomic mass
34,984550111 ± 0,000038494 Da
g-factor
0,46828571428571 ± 0,0011428571428571
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
780 ± 120 ms
Spini7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1971
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)5%

36Si

Numri i masës36
numri i neutroneve22
relative atomic mass
35,986649271 ± 0,000077077 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
503 ± 2 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1971
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12%

37Si

Numri i masës37
numri i neutroneve23
relative atomic mass
36,992945191 ± 0,000122179 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
141 ± 3,5 ms
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1979
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17%
2n (2-neutron emission)

38Si

Numri i masës38
numri i neutroneve24
relative atomic mass
37,995523 ± 0,0001125 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
63 ± 8 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1979
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)25%

39Si

Numri i masës39
numri i neutroneve25
relative atomic mass
39,002491 ± 0,0001455 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
41,2 ± 4,1 ms
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1979
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)33%
2n (2-neutron emission)

40Si

Numri i masës40
numri i neutroneve26
relative atomic mass
40,006083641 ± 0,000130962 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
31,2 ± 2,6 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1989
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)38%
2n (2-neutron emission)

41Si

Numri i masës41
numri i neutroneve27
relative atomic mass
41,014171 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
20 ± 2,5 ms
Spini7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1989
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)55%
2n (2-neutron emission)

42Si

Numri i masës42
numri i neutroneve28
relative atomic mass
42,018078 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
12,5 ± 3,5 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1990
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

43Si

Numri i masës43
numri i neutroneve29
relative atomic mass
43,026119 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes2002
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

44Si

Numri i masës44
numri i neutroneve30
relative atomic mass
44,031466 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes2007
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

45Si

Numri i masës45
numri i neutroneve31
relative atomic mass
45,039818 ± 0,000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
SiliconCroda
Silicon-unit-cell-3D-balls

historia

zbuluesJöns Berzelius
vendndodhja e zbulimitSweden
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1824
EtimologjiaLatin: silex, silicus, (flint).
pronunciationSIL-i-ken (anglisht)

burim

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
282 000 mg/kg
natural abundance (Oqeani)
2,2 mg/L
natural abundance (Trupi i njeriut)
0,026 %
natural abundance (meteoroid)
14 %
natural abundance (Diell)
0,09 %
Abundance in Universe
0,07 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.4255
2p4.055
2s4.98
3p9.7148
3s9.0968