Titanium

Titanium (Ti)

White metallic transition element. Occurs in numerous minerals. Used in strong, light corrosion-resistant alloys. Forms a passive oxide coating when exposed to air. First discovered by Gregor in 1789.
Atomic Number22
Atomic Weight47.867
Mass Number48
Group4
Period4
Blockd
Protons22 p+
Neutrons26 n0
Electrons22 e-
Titan-crystal bar.JPG Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
140 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
136 pm
Metallic Radius
132 pm
Ionic Radius
86 pm
Crystal Radius
100 pm
Van der Waals radius
211 pm
Density
4.506 g/cm³
Boiling Point
3,560 K
Melting Point
1,933 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 10, 2
Electronegativity
1.54
Electrophilicity
0.8836023565739 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
876 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
6.82812 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
422.6 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
18.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
473 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
25.06 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.523 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
21.9 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
853.7 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
100 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
1,044 a₀
Oxidation States-1, 2, 3, 4
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
2.95 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIVA
IUPAC GroupIVB
Glawe Number51
Mendeleev Number43
Pettifor Number51
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
5,650 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.001 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe0.0003%

Isotopes of Titanium

Stable Isotopes
46Ti 47Ti 48Ti 49Ti 50Ti
Unstable Isotopes
38Ti 39Ti 40Ti 41Ti 42Ti 43Ti 44Ti 45Ti 51Ti 52Ti 53Ti 54Ti 55Ti 56Ti 57Ti 58Ti 59Ti 60Ti 61Ti 62Ti 63Ti

History

William Gregor found the oxide of titanium in ilmenite in 1791. Martin Heinrich Klaproth independently discovered the element in rutile in 1795 and named it. The pure metallic form was only obtained in 1910 by Matthew A. Hunter. In 1936, the Kroll Process made the commercial production of titanium possible. From the Latin titans, the first sons of the Earth, Greek mythology

DiscoverersWilliam Gregor
Discovery LocationEngland
Discovery Year1791
Name OriginGreek: titanos (Titans).
Titanium metal is considered to be non-toxic
Titanium is one of the few elements that burns in pure nitrogen gas

Uses

Titanium is used in steel as an alloying element to reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to reduce carbon content. Titanium has potential use in desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water. Titanium is used in several everyday products such as drill bits, bicycles, golf clubs, watches and laptop computers. Since it is strong and resists acids it is used in many alloys. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), a white pigment that covers surfaces very well, is used in paint, rubber, paper and many others.

Sources

Usually occurs in the minerals ilmenite (FeTiO3) or rutile (TiO2). Also in Titaniferous magnetite, titanite (CaTiSiO5), and iron ores. Pure metal produced by heating TiO2 with C and Cl2 to produce TiCl4 then heated with Mg gas in Ar atmosphere.