CAS Number7440-03-1
PubChem CID23936
Atomic Radius146
Atomic Volume10.87
Atomic Weight92.906
Boiling Point4,744
Bulk Modulus
CategoryTransition metals
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic
Covalent Radius164
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d4 5s1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Heat of Fusion26.8
Heat of Vaporization690
Ionization Potential6.759
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass Number41
Melting Point2,477
Atomic Number93
Oxidation States-1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity0.265
Thermal Conductivity0.537
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance in Earth's crust0.0017%
Abundance in Universe2×10-7%
Nb Niobium 41 92.90638 5 5 d 41 2468.0 4742.0 [Kr] 4d4 5s1 2 8 18 12 1 8.57 0.0017% Gray Cubic: Body centered 1.6 1.41 {"1":"652.1","2":"1380","3":"2416","4":"3700","5":"4877","6":"9847","7":"12100"} 652 86.1 137 +5,3 1.46 10.8 26.9 690.1 0.265 53.7 0 Solid, Conductor, TransitionMetal, Metal, Stable, Natural ni-OH-bee-em Shiny white, soft, ductile metal. Used as an alloy with iron and nickel. It can be used in nuclear reactors and is known to be superconductive when alloyed with tin, aluminum or zirconium. Occurs in a mineral columbite. Formerly known as colombium (Cb). It is used in stainless steel alloys for nuclear reactors, jets and missiles. Mr2hnIheDxQ Niobium
Lithium was discovered by Johann Arfvedson in 1817 when he was analyzing minerals from the island of Uto in Sweden.

The pure metal was isolated the following year by both Swedish chemist William Thomas Brande and English chemist Sir Humphry Davy working independently.

In 1855, larger quantities of lithium were produced through the electrolysis of lithium chloride by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen. From the Greek word lithos, stone 41 1801 Charles Hatchett England From the Greek word "Niobe" meaning "daughter of Tantalus"

Isotopes of Lithium

Standard Atomic Weight


Stable Isotopes


Unstable Isotopes

81Nb 82Nb 83Nb 84Nb 85Nb 86Nb 87Nb 88Nb 89Nb 90Nb 91Nb 92Nb 94Nb 95Nb 96Nb 97Nb 98Nb 99Nb 100Nb 101Nb 102Nb 103Nb 104Nb 105Nb 106Nb 107Nb 108Nb 109Nb 110Nb 111Nb 112Nb 113Nb

Lithium is corrosive and requires special handling to avoid skin contact
Lithium is the only metal which reacts with nitrogen under normal conditions
Pure lithium metal is used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

Lithium stearate is used as an all-purpose and high-temperature lubricant.

Lithium is used in special glasses and ceramics.

Metallic lithium and its complex hydrides are used as high energy additives to rocket propellants.