CAS Number7440-67-7
PubChem CID23995
Atomic Radius160
Atomic Volume14
Atomic Weight91.224
Boiling Point4,409
Bulk Modulus
CategoryTransition metals
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal
Covalent Radius175
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Heat of Fusion21
Heat of Vaporization580
Ionization Potential6.634
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass Number40
Melting Point1,855
Atomic Number91
Oxidation States1, 2, 3, 4
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity0.278
Thermal Conductivity0.227
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance in Earth's crust0.013%
Abundance in Universe5×10-6%
Zr Zirconium 40 91.224 4 5 d 40 1852.0 4377.0 [Kr] 4d2 5s2 2 8 18 10 2 6.51 0.013% Silver Hexagonal 1.3 1.32 {"1":"640.1","2":"1270","3":"2218","4":"3313","5":"7752","6":"9500"} 640 41.1 148 4 1.6 14.1 21.0 590.5 0.278 22.7 0 Solid, Paramagnetic, Conductor, TransitionMetal, Metal, Stable, Natural zer-KO-ni-em Gray-white, lustrous, corrosion-resistant metal. Used in alloys such as zircaloy which is used in nuclear applications since it does not readily absorb neutrons. Also baddeleyite is used in lab crucibles. Used in high-performance pumps and valves. Clear zircon (ZrSiO4) is a popular gemstone. Found in many minerals such as zircon and baddeleyite. 7p9H0FubPv8 Zirconium
Copper occurs naturally as native copper and was known to some of the oldest civilizations on record.

Earliest estimates of the discovery of copper suggest around 9000 BC in the Middle East.

It was one of the most important materials to humans throughout the copper and bronze ages. From the Latin word cuprum, from the island of Cyprus 40 1789 Martin Heinrich Klaproth Berlin, Germany From the Arabic word "zargun" meaning "gold colour"

Isotopes of Copper

Standard Atomic Weight


Stable Isotopes

90Zr 91Zr 92Zr 94Zr 96Zr

Unstable Isotopes

78Zr 79Zr 80Zr 81Zr 82Zr 83Zr 84Zr 85Zr 86Zr 87Zr 88Zr 89Zr 93Zr 95Zr 97Zr 98Zr 99Zr 100Zr 101Zr 102Zr 103Zr 104Zr 105Zr 106Zr 107Zr 108Zr 109Zr 110Zr

Cooking acidic food in copper pots can cause toxicity
Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air
Copper is often used for electrical wiring applications and for household plumbing applications.

Copper sulfate is used as a fungicide and as an algicide in rivers, lakes and ponds.

It is also used in cookware and cooking utensils.

Commercially important alloys such as brass and bronze are made with copper and other metals.