Properties

CAS Number7439-92-1
PubChem CID5352425
Atomic Radius175
Atomic Volume18.17
Atomic Weight207.2
Blockp
Boiling Point1,749
Bulk Modulus
CategoryPost-transition metals
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic
ColorSlate Gray
Covalent Radius146
Density11.342
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
Electronegativity2.33
Electrons82
Group14
Heat of Fusion4.77
Heat of Vaporization178
Ionization Potential7.417
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass207.2
Mass Number82
Melting Point327.46
NameLead
Neutrons125
Atomic Number207
Oxidation States-4, 2, 4
Period6
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Protons82
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity0.129
SymbolPb
Thermal Conductivity0.353
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust0.00099%
Abundance in Universe1×10-6%
Pb Lead 82 207.2 14 6 p 82 327.5 1740.0 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2 2 8 18 32 18 4 11.4 0.00099% SlateGray Cubic: Face centered 2.3 1.854 {"1":"715.6","2":"1450.5","3":"3081.5","4":"4083","5":"6640"} 723 35.1 175 +2,4 1.75 18.3 4.77 177.9 0.129 35.3 0 Solid, Diamagnetic, Conductor, Metal, Stable, Natural, PoorMetal LED Very soft, highly malleable and ductile, blue-white shiny metal. Used in solder, shielding against radiation and in batteries. Found most often in ores called galena or lead sulfide (PbS). Some is found in its native state. 2ERfPN5JLX8 Lead
Holmium was discovered by Swiss chemists Marc Delafontaine and Jacques-Louis Soret in 1878.

They noticed the aberrant spectrographic absorption bands of the then-unknown element.

Later in 1878, Per Teodor Cleve independently discovered the element while he was working on erbia earth. From the Latin word Holmia meaning Stockholm 82 From the Anglo-Saxon word "lead; Latin, plumbum" (the origin of the symbol Pb is the Latin word "plumbum" meaning "liquid silver"

Isotopes of Holmium

Standard Atomic Weight

207.2(1)

Stable Isotopes

204Pb 206Pb 207Pb 208Pb

Unstable Isotopes

178Pb 179Pb 180Pb 181Pb 182Pb 183Pb 184Pb 185Pb 186Pb 187Pb 188Pb 189Pb 190Pb 191Pb 192Pb 193Pb 194Pb 195Pb 196Pb 197Pb 198Pb 199Pb 200Pb 201Pb 202Pb 203Pb 205Pb 209Pb 210Pb 211Pb 212Pb 213Pb 214Pb 215Pb

Holmium is considered to be of low toxicity
Holmium has the highest magnetic strength of any naturally occurring element
Holmium is used to create the strongest artificially generated magnetic fields, when placed within high-strength magnets as a magnetic pole piece.

It is one of the colorants used for cubic zirconia and glass, providing yellow or red coloring.

Holmium isotopes are good neutron absorbers and are used in nuclear reactor control rods.