CAS Number7440-65-5
PubChem CID23993
Atomic Radius180
Atomic Volume19.8
Atomic Weight88.906
Boiling Point3,336
Bulk Modulus
CategoryTransition metals
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal
Covalent Radius190
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 9, 2
Heat of Fusion11.4
Heat of Vaporization380
Ionization Potential6.217
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass Number39
Melting Point1,526
Atomic Number89
Oxidation States1, 2, 3
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity0.298
Thermal Conductivity0.172
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance in Earth's crust0.0029%
Abundance in Universe7×10-7%
Y Yttrium 39 88.90585 3 5 d 39 1523.0 3337.0 [Kr] 4d1 5s2 2 8 18 9 2 4.47 0.0029% Silver Hexagonal 1.2 1.12 {"1":"600","2":"1180","3":"1980","4":"5847","5":"7430","6":"8970","7":"11190","8":"12450","9":"14110","10":"18400","11":"19900","12":"36090"} 600 29.6 162 3 1.78 19.8 17.5 363.3 0.3 17.2 0 Solid, Conductor, TransitionMetal, Metal, Stable, Natural IT-ri-em Silvery, ductile, fairly reactive metal. Combined with europium to make red phosphors for color TV's. Yttrium oxide and iron oxide combine to form a crystal garnet used in radar. Found in minerals such as monazite, xenotime, and yttria. tTXjnQlAHAQ Yttrium
Artifacts made from metallic meteorites have been found dating from as early as 5000 BC.

In 1751, Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt was trying to extract copper from kupfernickel and instead produced the white metal.

In the early twentieth century, Ludwig Mond patented a process using nickel carbonyl to purify nickel. From the German word Nickel (Satan), and from kupfernickel, Old Nick's copper 39 1794 Johann Gadolin Finland Named after the village of "Ytterby" near Vaxholm in Sweden

Isotopes of Nickel

Standard Atomic Weight


Stable Isotopes


Unstable Isotopes

76Y 77Y 78Y 79Y 80Y 81Y 82Y 83Y 84Y 85Y 86Y 87Y 88Y 90Y 91Y 92Y 93Y 94Y 95Y 96Y 97Y 98Y 99Y 100Y 101Y 102Y 103Y 104Y 105Y 106Y 107Y 108Y

Nickel and its compounds are considered to be carcinogenic
Nickel is 100 times more concentrated below Earth's crust than in it
Nickel is used extensively to make coins and nickel steel for armor plates and burglar-proof vaults.

Tubing made of copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water.

Nickel is also used in batteries, ceramics and magnets.