Silver

Silver (Ag)

White lustrous soft metallic transition element. Found in both its elemental form and in minerals. Used in jewellery, tableware and so on. Less reactive than silver, chemically.
Atomic Number47
Atomic Weight107.8682
Mass Number107
Group11
Period5
Blockd
Protons47 p+
Neutrons60 n0
Electrons47 e-
Silver crystal.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
160 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
128 pm
Metallic Radius
134 pm
Ionic Radius
67 pm
Crystal Radius
81 pm
Van der Waals radius
211 pm
Density
10.5 g/cm³
Boiling Point
2,485 K
Melting Point
1,235.1 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 1
Electronegativity
1.93
Electrophilicity
1.57037175691 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
7.576234 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
254.1 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
11.95 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
284.9 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
25.35 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.235 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
55 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States1, 2, 3
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
4.09 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s1
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIB
IUPAC GroupIB
Glawe Number67
Mendeleev Number72
Pettifor Number71
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.075 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00004 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe6×10-8%

Isotopes of Silver

Stable Isotopes
107Ag 109Ag
Unstable Isotopes
93Ag 94Ag 95Ag 96Ag 97Ag 98Ag 99Ag 100Ag 101Ag 102Ag 103Ag 104Ag 105Ag 106Ag 108Ag 110Ag 111Ag 112Ag 113Ag 114Ag 115Ag 116Ag 117Ag 118Ag 119Ag 120Ag 121Ag 122Ag 123Ag 124Ag 125Ag 126Ag 127Ag 128Ag 129Ag 130Ag

History

Silver has been used for thousands of years for ornaments and utensils, for trade, and as the basis for many monetary systems. Its value as a precious metal was long considered second only to gold. Slag dumps in Asia Minor and on islands in the Aegean Sea indicate that man learned to separate silver from lead as early as 3000 BC. The Latin word for silver is argentum

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Name OriginAnglo-Saxon: siolful, (silver); symbol from Latin: argentium.
Silver is considered to be non-toxic
In ancient Egypt and Medieval Europe, silver was often more valuable than gold

Uses

Silver has long been valued as a precious metal, and is used as an investment, to make ornaments, jewelry, high-value tableware, utensils, and currency coins. It is also used in electrical contacts and conductors, in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Its compounds are used in photographic film, and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides Used in alloys for jewelry and in other compounds for photography. It is also a good conductor, but expensive.

Sources

Found in ores called argentite (AgS), light ruby silver (Ag3AsS3), dark ruby silver(Ag3SbS3) and brittle silver.