Aluminum

Aluminum (Al)

Silvery-white lustrous metallic element of group 3 of the periodic table. Highly reactive but protected by a thin transparent layer of the oxide which quickly forms in air. There are many alloys of aluminum, as well as a good number of industrial uses. Makes up 8.1% of the Earth's crust, by weight. Isolated in 1825 by H.C. Oersted.
Atomic Number13
Atomic Weight26.9815385
Mass Number27
Group13
Period3
Blockp
Protons13 p+
Neutrons14 n0
Electrons13 e-
Aluminium-4.jpg Aluminium bar surface etched.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
125 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
126 pm
Metallic Radius
125 pm
Ionic Radius
39 pm
Crystal Radius
53 pm
Van der Waals radius
184 pm
Density
2.7 g/cm³
Boiling Point
2,740 K
Melting Point
933.5 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 3
Electronegativity
1.61
Electrophilicity
0.9274010094476 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.43283 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
5.9857684 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
284.1 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
10.75 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
330.9 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
0.897 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
57.8 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
528 a₀
Oxidation States1, 3
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
4.05 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p1
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIIIB
IUPAC GroupIIIA
Glawe Number78
Mendeleev Number82
Pettifor Number80
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
82,300 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.002 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe0.005%

Isotopes of Aluminum

Stable Isotopes
27Al
Unstable Isotopes
21Al 22Al 23Al 24Al 25Al 26Al 28Al 29Al 30Al 31Al 32Al 33Al 34Al 35Al 36Al 37Al 38Al 39Al 40Al 41Al 42Al

History

In 1761, Guyton de Morveau proposed the name alumine for the base in alum, and Antoine Lavoisier, in 1787, thought this to be the oxide of a still undiscovered metal. Sir Humphry Davy identified the existence of a metal base of alum in 1808. Hans Christian Ørsted was the first to isolate metallic aluminum in 1825 in impure form. Friedrich Wöhler is generally credited with having isolated the metal in 1827. From the Latin word alumen, alum

DiscoverersHans Christian Oersted
Discovery LocationDenmark
Discovery Year1825
Name OriginLatin: alumen, aluminis, (alum).
Aluminum is not known to be toxic
Aluminum does not stick to magnets under normal conditions

Uses

Aluminum is used in an extensive range of products from drinks cans to window frames and boats to aircraft. It is used in electrical transmission lines. It is also used for kitchen utensils, outside building decoration, and in thousands of industrial applications. When alloyed with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, or other elements impart a variety of useful properties. Used for many purposes from airplanes to beverage cans. Too soft in its pure form so less than 1% of silicon or iron is added, which hardens and strengthens it.

Sources

Never occurs in free form. Obtained by electrolysis from bauxite (Al2O3).