Aluminium

Aluminium (Al)

metallic chemical element of silvery appearance with symbol Al and atomic number 13
Atomic Number13
Atomic Weight26.9815385
Nombor jisim27
Group13
Period3
Blockp
proton13 p+
neutron14 n0
Elektron13 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Al (Aluminium)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
125 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
126 pm
Metallic Radius
125 pm
ionic radius
39 pm
Crystal Radius
53 pm
Jejari van der Waals
184 pm
ketumpatan
2.7 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Aluminium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
Pertalian elektron
0.43283 eV/particle
ionization energy
5.9857684 eV/particle
ionization energy of Al (Aluminium)
Entalpi pengewapan
284.1 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
10.75 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
330.9 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 3
Model Bohr: Al (Aluminium)
Elektron valens3
Teori ion Lewis: Al (Aluminium)
tatarajah elektron[Ne] 3s2 3p1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
Enhanced Model Bohr of Al (Aluminium)
Orbital Diagram of Al (Aluminium)
Keadaan pengoksidaan-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3
Keelektronegatifan
1.61
Electrophilicity Index
0.9274010094475963 eV/particle
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
2,792.15 K
Melting Point
933.473 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
6,700.15 K
triple point
rupa
warna
Silver
rupasilvery gray metallic
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
Pengembangan terma
0.0000231 1/K
molar heat capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
0.897 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
38 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.000000026 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
1.175 K
kemagnetan
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000078 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.00000000021 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.0000211
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
4.05 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
2.75 MPa
Modulus pukal
76 GPa
shear modulus
26 GPa
Young's modulus
70 GPa
Nisbah Poisson
0.35
Kelajuan bunyi
5,100 m/s
pengelasan
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIIIB
IUPAC GroupIIIA
Glawe Number78
Mendeleev Number82
Pettifor Number80
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
57.8 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
528 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
0.233
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.03
Nombor kuantum2P1/2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Aluminum

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes22
Natural Isotopes1

21Al

Nombor jisim21
nombor neutron8
jisim atom relatif
21.029082 ± 0.000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)

22Al

Nombor jisim22
nombor neutron9
jisim atom relatif
22.01954 ± 0.00043 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
91.1 ± 0.5 ms
Spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1982
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)55%
2p (2-proton emission)1.1%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.038%

23Al

Nombor jisim23
nombor neutron10
jisim atom relatif
23.007244351 ± 0.00000037 Da
g-factor
1.556 ± 0.008
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
446 ± 6 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1969
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)1.22%

24Al

Nombor jisim24
nombor neutron11
jisim atom relatif
23.999947598 ± 0.000000244 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.053 ± 0.004 s
Spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1953
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.035%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.0016%

25Al

Nombor jisim25
nombor neutron12
jisim atom relatif
24.990428308 ± 0.000000069 Da
g-factor
1.45788 ± 0.00048
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
7.1666 ± 0.0023 s
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.24 ± 0.02
tarikh penemuan1953
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

26Al

Nombor jisim26
nombor neutron13
jisim atom relatif
25.986891876 ± 0.000000071 Da
g-factor
0.5606 ± 0.0008
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
717 ± 24 ky
Spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.26 ± 0.03
tarikh penemuan1934
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

27Al

Nombor jisim27
nombor neutron14
jisim atom relatif
26.981538408 ± 0.00000005 Da
g-factor
1.45628 ± 0.000008
natural abundance
100
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.1466 ± 0.001
tarikh penemuan1922
parity+

28Al

Nombor jisim28
nombor neutron15
jisim atom relatif
27.981910009 ± 0.000000052 Da
g-factor
1.0803333333333 ± 0.0016666666666667
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.245 ± 0.005 m
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.172 ± 0.012
tarikh penemuan1934
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

29Al

Nombor jisim29
nombor neutron16
jisim atom relatif
28.980453164 ± 0.00000037 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
6.56 ± 0.06 m
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1939
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

30Al

Nombor jisim30
nombor neutron17
jisim atom relatif
29.982969171 ± 0.000002077 Da
g-factor
1.004 ± 0.0023333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.62 ± 0.06 s
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1961
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

31Al

Nombor jisim31
nombor neutron18
jisim atom relatif
30.983949754 ± 0.0000024 Da
g-factor
1.5328 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
644 ± 25 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.134 ± 0.002
tarikh penemuan1971
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1.6%

32Al

Nombor jisim32
nombor neutron19
jisim atom relatif
31.988084338 ± 0.0000077 Da
g-factor
1.953 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
32.6 ± 0.5 ms
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.0255 ± 0.0003
tarikh penemuan1971
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.7%

33Al

Nombor jisim33
nombor neutron20
jisim atom relatif
32.990877685 ± 0.0000075 Da
g-factor
1.636 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
41.46 ± 0.09 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.141 ± 0.003
tarikh penemuan1971
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)8.5%

34Al

Nombor jisim34
nombor neutron21
jisim atom relatif
33.996781924 ± 0.000002259 Da
g-factor
0.53925 ± 0.004
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
53.73 ± 0.13 ms
Spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1977
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)26%
2n (2-neutron emission)

35Al

Nombor jisim35
nombor neutron22
jisim atom relatif
34.999759816 ± 0.0000079 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
38.16 ± 0.21 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1979
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)35.8%
2n (2-neutron emission)

36Al

Nombor jisim36
nombor neutron23
jisim atom relatif
36.006388 ± 0.0001605 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
90 ± 40 ms
Spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1979
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)31%
2n (2-neutron emission)

37Al

Nombor jisim37
nombor neutron24
jisim atom relatif
37.010531 ± 0.0001935 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
11.4 ± 0.3 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1979
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)52%
2n (2-neutron emission)1%

38Al

Nombor jisim38
nombor neutron25
jisim atom relatif
38.017681 ± 0.000161 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
9 ± 0.7 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1989
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)84%
2n (2-neutron emission)

39Al

Nombor jisim39
nombor neutron26
jisim atom relatif
39.02307 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
7.6 ± 1.6 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1989
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)97%
2n (2-neutron emission)

40Al

Nombor jisim40
nombor neutron27
jisim atom relatif
40.03094 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1996
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

41Al

Nombor jisim41
nombor neutron28
jisim atom relatif
41.037134 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1997
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

42Al

Nombor jisim42
nombor neutron29
jisim atom relatif
42.045078 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2007
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

43Al

Nombor jisim43
nombor neutron30
jisim atom relatif
43.05182 ± 0.000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2007
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Aluminium-4
Aluminium bar surface etched

sejarah

penemu atau perekaHans Christian Oersted
tempat penemuanDenmark
tarikh penemuan1825
EtimologiLatin: alumen, aluminis, (alum).
sebutanah-LOO-men-em (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
82,300 mg/kg
natural abundance (lautan)
0.002 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
0.00009 %
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0.91 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.006 %
Abundance in Universe
0.005 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.409
2p4.0366
2s4.7864
3p8.9344
3s8.8828