Goud

Goud (Au)

'n Gesogte edelmetaal met 'n heldergeel (goue) kleur
Atomic Number79
Atomic Weight196.966569
Massagetal197
Group11
Period6
Blockd
proton79 p+
neutron118 n0
elektron79 e-
Animated Bohr model of Au (Goud)

Physical Property

Atoomradius
135 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
124 pm
Metallic Radius
134 pm
Ioonradius
137 pm
Crystal Radius
151 pm
Van der Waals radius
214 pm
density
19,3 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Goud020406080100120140160180200220pmAtoomradiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energie
proton affinity
electron affinity
2,30863 eV/particle
ionization energy
9,225553 eV/particle
ionization energy of Au (Goud)
Verdampingswarmte
340 kJ/mol
smeltingswarmte
12,68 kJ/mol
Vormingsentalpie
368,2 kJ/mol
elektron
Elektronskil2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Bohr model: Au (Goud)
Valenselektrone1
Lewisteorie: Au (Goud)
elektronkonfigurasie[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s1
Enhanced Bohr model of Au (Goud)
Orbital Diagram of Au (Goud)
Oksidasietoestand-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 5
Elektronegatiwiteit
2.4
Electrophilicity Index
2,404200854149471 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3 109,15 K
Melting Point
1 337,33 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
kleur
Gold
appearancemetallic yellow
Brekingsindeks
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0,0000142 1/K
molar heat capacity
25,418 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,129 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Geleidingsvermoë
45 MS/m
Elektriese resistiwiteit
0,000000022 m Ω
superconductivity
Magnetisme
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,00000000178 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,000000000351 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,0000344
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
4,08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
2,5 MPa
Massamodulus
220 GPa
Skuifmodulus
27 GPa
Young se modulus
78 GPa
Poisson se verhouding
0,44
Spoed van klank
1 740 m/s
classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIB
IUPAC GroupIB
Glawe Number66
Mendeleev Number73
Pettifor Number70
Geochemical Classnoble metal
Goldschmidt classificationsiderophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
36 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
98,7
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,017
quantum number2S1/2
Ruimtegroep225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Gold

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes42
Natural Isotopes1

168Au

Massagetal168
neutron number89
relative atomic mass
168,002716 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum
parity

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

169Au

Massagetal169
neutron number90
relative atomic mass
168,99808 ± 0,00032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum
parity+

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

170Au

Massagetal170
neutron number91
relative atomic mass
169,996024 ± 0,000216 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
290 ± 50 us
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2002
parity

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)89%
α (α emission)11%

171Au

Massagetal171
neutron number92
relative atomic mass
170,991881533 ± 0,000022236 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
22,3 ± 2,4 us
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)100%
α (α emission)

172Au

Massagetal172
neutron number93
relative atomic mass
171,989996704 ± 0,000060287 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
28 ± 4 ms
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1993
parity

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
p (proton emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

173Au

Massagetal173
neutron number94
relative atomic mass
172,986224263 ± 0,000024458 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
25,5 ± 0,8 ms
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1983
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)86%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

174Au

Massagetal174
neutron number95
relative atomic mass
173,984908 ± 0,000109 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
139 ± 3 ms
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1983
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)90%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

175Au

Massagetal175
neutron number96
relative atomic mass
174,981316375 ± 0,000041399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
200 ± 3 ms
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1975
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)88%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

176Au

Massagetal176
neutron number97
relative atomic mass
175,980116925 ± 0,000035625 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
1,05 ± 0,01 s
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1975
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)75%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

177Au

Massagetal177
neutron number98
relative atomic mass
176,976869701 ± 0,0000107 Da
g-factor
2,3 ± 0,1
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
1,501 ± 0,02 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)40%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)60%

178Au

Massagetal178
neutron number99
relative atomic mass
177,976056714 ± 0,000011 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
3,4 ± 0,5 s
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)84%
α (α emission)16%

179Au

Massagetal179
neutron number100
relative atomic mass
178,973173666 ± 0,000012555 Da
g-factor
2,02 ± 0,1
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
7,1 ± 0,3 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)78%
α (α emission)22%

180Au

Massagetal180
neutron number101
relative atomic mass
179,972489738 ± 0,000005108 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
7,9 ± 0,3 s
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1977
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.42%
α (α emission)0.58%

181Au

Massagetal181
neutron number102
relative atomic mass
180,970079102 ± 0,000021445 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
13,7 ± 1,4 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)97.3%
α (α emission)2.7%

182Au

Massagetal182
neutron number103
relative atomic mass
181,969614433 ± 0,000020143 Da
g-factor
0,65 ± 0,05
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
15,5 ± 0,4 s
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1970
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.13%

183Au

Massagetal183
neutron number104
relative atomic mass
182,967588106 ± 0,000010116 Da
g-factor
0,784 ± 0,008
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
42,8 ± 1 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.45%
α (α emission)0.55%

184Au

Massagetal184
neutron number105
relative atomic mass
183,967451523 ± 0,000023912 Da
g-factor
0,412 ± 0,004
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
20,6 ± 0,9 s
spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
4,7 ± 0,3
ontdekkingsdatum1969
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.013%

185Au

Massagetal185
neutron number106
relative atomic mass
184,965798871 ± 0,0000028 Da
g-factor
0,864 ± 0,008
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
4,25 ± 0,06 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-1,1 ± 0,1
ontdekkingsdatum1960
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.74%
α (α emission)0.26%

186Au

Massagetal186
neutron number107
relative atomic mass
185,965952703 ± 0,000022509 Da
g-factor
-0,42 ± 0,01
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
10,7 ± 0,5 m
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,1 ± 0,06
ontdekkingsdatum1960
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.0008%

187Au

Massagetal187
neutron number108
relative atomic mass
186,964542147 ± 0,000024153 Da
g-factor
1,066 ± 0,03
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
8,3 ± 0,2 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1955
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

188Au

Massagetal188
neutron number109
relative atomic mass
187,965247966 ± 0,0000029 Da
g-factor
-0,07 ± 0,03
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
8,84 ± 0,06 m
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1955
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

189Au

Massagetal189
neutron number110
relative atomic mass
188,963948286 ± 0,000021558 Da
g-factor
0,984 ± 0,028
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
28,7 ± 0,4 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1955
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)3%

190Au

Massagetal190
neutron number111
relative atomic mass
189,964751746 ± 0,0000037 Da
g-factor
-0,065 ± 0,007
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
42,8 ± 1 m
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1959
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)1%

191Au

Massagetal191
neutron number112
relative atomic mass
190,963716452 ± 0,000005288 Da
g-factor
0,090933333333333 ± 0,0006
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
3,18 ± 0,08 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,72 ± 0,02
ontdekkingsdatum1954
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

192Au

Massagetal192
neutron number113
relative atomic mass
191,964817615 ± 0,000016991 Da
g-factor
-0,0107 ± 0,0015
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
4,94 ± 0,09 h
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,228 ± 0,008
ontdekkingsdatum1948
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

193Au

Massagetal193
neutron number114
relative atomic mass
192,964138442 ± 0,000009311 Da
g-factor
0,092733333333333 ± 0,00033333333333333
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
17,65 ± 0,15 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,66 ± 0,02
ontdekkingsdatum1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

194Au

Massagetal194
neutron number115
relative atomic mass
193,965419051 ± 0,000002273 Da
g-factor
0,076 ± 0,0013
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
38,02 ± 0,1 h
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,24 ± 0,009
ontdekkingsdatum1948
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

195Au

Massagetal195
neutron number116
relative atomic mass
194,965037823 ± 0,000001201 Da
g-factor
0,098733333333333 ± 0,0004
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
186,01 ± 0,06 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,607 ± 0,018
ontdekkingsdatum1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

196Au

Massagetal196
neutron number117
relative atomic mass
195,966571213 ± 0,000003179 Da
g-factor
0,29415 ± 0,00025
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
6,165 ± 0,011 d
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,81 ± 0,07
ontdekkingsdatum1937
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)93%
β (β decay)7%

197Au

Massagetal197
neutron number118
relative atomic mass
196,966570103 ± 0,000000581 Da
g-factor
0,0968 ± 0,00013333333333333
natural abundance
100
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,547 ± 0,016
ontdekkingsdatum1935
parity+

198Au

Massagetal198
neutron number119
relative atomic mass
197,968243714 ± 0,000000579 Da
g-factor
0,29555 ± 0,0004
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
2,69464 ± 0,00014 d
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,64 ± 0,019
ontdekkingsdatum1937
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

199Au

Massagetal199
neutron number120
relative atomic mass
198,968766573 ± 0,000000581 Da
g-factor
0,18033333333333 ± 0,00053333333333333
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
3,139 ± 0,007 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,51 ± 0,016
ontdekkingsdatum1937
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

200Au

Massagetal200
neutron number121
relative atomic mass
199,970756558 ± 0,000028681 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
48,4 ± 0,3 m
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1951
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

201Au

Massagetal201
neutron number122
relative atomic mass
200,971657678 ± 0,000003455 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
26 ± 0,8 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1952
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

202Au

Massagetal202
neutron number123
relative atomic mass
201,973856 ± 0,000025 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
28,4 ± 1,2 s
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1967
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

203Au

Massagetal203
neutron number124
relative atomic mass
202,975154492 ± 0,000003309 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
60 ± 6 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1952
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

204Au

Massagetal204
neutron number125
relative atomic mass
203,97811 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
38,3 ± 1,3 s
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

205Au

Massagetal205
neutron number126
relative atomic mass
204,980064 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
32 ± 1,4 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

206Au

Massagetal206
neutron number127
relative atomic mass
205,984766 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
47 ± 11 s
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2009
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

207Au

Massagetal207
neutron number128
relative atomic mass
206,988577 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

208Au

Massagetal208
neutron number129
relative atomic mass
207,993655 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

209Au

Massagetal209
neutron number130
relative atomic mass
208,997606 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

210Au

Massagetal210
neutron number131
relative atomic mass
210,002877 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gold-crystals

geskiedenis

Ontdek deurKnown to the ancients.
ligging van ontdekking
ontdekkingsdatum
etimologieAnglo-Saxon: geolo (yellow); symbol from Latin: aurum (shining dawn).
uitspraakGOLD (Engels)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,004 mg/kg
natural abundance (oseaan)
0,000004 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
0,00001 %
natural abundance (Meteoroïde)
0,000017 %
natural abundance (Son)
0,0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00000006 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.5239
2p4.4868
2s20.6302
3d13.4917
3p22.297
3s23.2372
4d37.472
4f38.3504
4p35.4532
4s34.5868
5d58.8735
5p53.83
5s51.6725
6s68.062