Zlato

Zlato (Au)

hemijski element sa simbolom Au i atomskim brojem 79
Atomic Number79
Atomic Weight196.966569
Maseni broj197
Group11
Period6
Blockd
Proton79 p+
Neutron118 n0
Elektron79 e-
Animated Bohrov model atoma of Au (Zlato)

Physical Property

Atomski Radijus
135 pm
Molarni volumen
covalent radius
124 pm
Metallic Radius
134 pm
Ionski radijus
137 pm
Crystal Radius
151 pm
Van der Waalsov radijus
214 pm
gustoća
19,3 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Zlato0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmAtomski RadijusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waalsov radijus

Chemical Property

energija
proton affinity
electron affinity
2,30863 eV/particle
ionization energy
9,225553 eV/particle
ionization energy of Au (Zlato)
Toplota isparavanja
340 kJ/mol
toplota topljenja
12,68 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
368,2 kJ/mol
Elektron
electron shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Bohrov model atoma: Au (Zlato)
Valentni elektron1
Lewis structure: Au (Zlato)
electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s1
Enhanced Bohrov model atoma of Au (Zlato)
Orbital Diagram of Au (Zlato)
oksidacijsko stanje-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 5
Elektronegativnost
2.4
Electrophilicity Index
2,404200854149471 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
agregatno stanjeSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3.109,15 K
Melting Point
1.337,33 K
critical pressure
Kritična temperatura
Trojna tačka
appearance
boja
Gold
appearancemetallic yellow
Indeks prelamanja
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0,0000142 1/K
molar heat capacity
25,418 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,129 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Specifična električna provodljivost
45 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,000000022 m Ω
Superprovodljivost
Magnetizam
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,00000000178 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,000000000351 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,0000344
magnetic ordering
Kirijeva tačka
Néel temperature
struktura
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
4,08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
Tvrdoća
2,5 MPa
bulk modulus
220 GPa
shear modulus
27 GPa
Young's modulus
78 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0,44
Brzina zvuka
1.740 m/s
klasifikacija
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIB
IUPAC GroupIB
Glawe Number66
Mendeleev Number73
Pettifor Number70
Geochemical Classnoble metal
Goldschmidt classificationsiderophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
36 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
98,7
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,017
Kvantni brojevi2S1/2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Gold

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes42
Natural Isotopes1

168Au

Maseni broj168
broj neutrona89
relative atomic mass
168,002716 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića
parity

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

169Au

Maseni broj169
broj neutrona90
relative atomic mass
168,99808 ± 0,00032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića
parity+

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

170Au

Maseni broj170
broj neutrona91
relative atomic mass
169,996024 ± 0,000216 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
290 ± 50 us
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića2002
parity

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)89%
α (α emission)11%

171Au

Maseni broj171
broj neutrona92
relative atomic mass
170,991881533 ± 0,000022236 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
22,3 ± 2,4 us
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)100%
α (α emission)

172Au

Maseni broj172
broj neutrona93
relative atomic mass
171,989996704 ± 0,000060287 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
28 ± 4 ms
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1993
parity

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
p (proton emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

173Au

Maseni broj173
broj neutrona94
relative atomic mass
172,986224263 ± 0,000024458 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
25,5 ± 0,8 ms
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1983
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)86%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

174Au

Maseni broj174
broj neutrona95
relative atomic mass
173,984908 ± 0,000109 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
139 ± 3 ms
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1983
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)90%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

175Au

Maseni broj175
broj neutrona96
relative atomic mass
174,981316375 ± 0,000041399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
200 ± 3 ms
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1975
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)88%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

176Au

Maseni broj176
broj neutrona97
relative atomic mass
175,980116925 ± 0,000035625 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,05 ± 0,01 s
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1975
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)75%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

177Au

Maseni broj177
broj neutrona98
relative atomic mass
176,976869701 ± 0,0000107 Da
g-factor
2,3 ± 0,1
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,501 ± 0,02 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)40%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)60%

178Au

Maseni broj178
broj neutrona99
relative atomic mass
177,976056714 ± 0,000011 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
3,4 ± 0,5 s
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)84%
α (α emission)16%

179Au

Maseni broj179
broj neutrona100
relative atomic mass
178,973173666 ± 0,000012555 Da
g-factor
2,02 ± 0,1
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
7,1 ± 0,3 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)78%
α (α emission)22%

180Au

Maseni broj180
broj neutrona101
relative atomic mass
179,972489738 ± 0,000005108 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
7,9 ± 0,3 s
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1977
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.42%
α (α emission)0.58%

181Au

Maseni broj181
broj neutrona102
relative atomic mass
180,970079102 ± 0,000021445 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
13,7 ± 1,4 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)97.3%
α (α emission)2.7%

182Au

Maseni broj182
broj neutrona103
relative atomic mass
181,969614433 ± 0,000020143 Da
g-factor
0,65 ± 0,05
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
15,5 ± 0,4 s
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1970
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.13%

183Au

Maseni broj183
broj neutrona104
relative atomic mass
182,967588106 ± 0,000010116 Da
g-factor
0,784 ± 0,008
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
42,8 ± 1 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.45%
α (α emission)0.55%

184Au

Maseni broj184
broj neutrona105
relative atomic mass
183,967451523 ± 0,000023912 Da
g-factor
0,412 ± 0,004
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
20,6 ± 0,9 s
spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
4,7 ± 0,3
datum otkrića1969
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.013%

185Au

Maseni broj185
broj neutrona106
relative atomic mass
184,965798871 ± 0,0000028 Da
g-factor
0,864 ± 0,008
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
4,25 ± 0,06 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-1,1 ± 0,1
datum otkrića1960
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.74%
α (α emission)0.26%

186Au

Maseni broj186
broj neutrona107
relative atomic mass
185,965952703 ± 0,000022509 Da
g-factor
-0,42 ± 0,01
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
10,7 ± 0,5 m
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,1 ± 0,06
datum otkrića1960
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.0008%

187Au

Maseni broj187
broj neutrona108
relative atomic mass
186,964542147 ± 0,000024153 Da
g-factor
1,066 ± 0,03
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
8,3 ± 0,2 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1955
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

188Au

Maseni broj188
broj neutrona109
relative atomic mass
187,965247966 ± 0,0000029 Da
g-factor
-0,07 ± 0,03
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
8,84 ± 0,06 m
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1955
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

189Au

Maseni broj189
broj neutrona110
relative atomic mass
188,963948286 ± 0,000021558 Da
g-factor
0,984 ± 0,028
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
28,7 ± 0,4 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1955
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)3%

190Au

Maseni broj190
broj neutrona111
relative atomic mass
189,964751746 ± 0,0000037 Da
g-factor
-0,065 ± 0,007
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
42,8 ± 1 m
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1959
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)1%

191Au

Maseni broj191
broj neutrona112
relative atomic mass
190,963716452 ± 0,000005288 Da
g-factor
0,090933333333333 ± 0,0006
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
3,18 ± 0,08 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,72 ± 0,02
datum otkrića1954
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

192Au

Maseni broj192
broj neutrona113
relative atomic mass
191,964817615 ± 0,000016991 Da
g-factor
-0,0107 ± 0,0015
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
4,94 ± 0,09 h
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,228 ± 0,008
datum otkrića1948
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

193Au

Maseni broj193
broj neutrona114
relative atomic mass
192,964138442 ± 0,000009311 Da
g-factor
0,092733333333333 ± 0,00033333333333333
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
17,65 ± 0,15 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,66 ± 0,02
datum otkrića1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

194Au

Maseni broj194
broj neutrona115
relative atomic mass
193,965419051 ± 0,000002273 Da
g-factor
0,076 ± 0,0013
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
38,02 ± 0,1 h
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,24 ± 0,009
datum otkrića1948
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

195Au

Maseni broj195
broj neutrona116
relative atomic mass
194,965037823 ± 0,000001201 Da
g-factor
0,098733333333333 ± 0,0004
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
186,01 ± 0,06 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,607 ± 0,018
datum otkrića1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

196Au

Maseni broj196
broj neutrona117
relative atomic mass
195,966571213 ± 0,000003179 Da
g-factor
0,29415 ± 0,00025
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
6,165 ± 0,011 d
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,81 ± 0,07
datum otkrića1937
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)93%
β (β decay)7%

197Au

Maseni broj197
broj neutrona118
relative atomic mass
196,966570103 ± 0,000000581 Da
g-factor
0,0968 ± 0,00013333333333333
natural abundance
100
Radioaktivnoststable isotope
Vrijeme poluraspadaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,547 ± 0,016
datum otkrića1935
parity+

198Au

Maseni broj198
broj neutrona119
relative atomic mass
197,968243714 ± 0,000000579 Da
g-factor
0,29555 ± 0,0004
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,69464 ± 0,00014 d
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,64 ± 0,019
datum otkrića1937
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

199Au

Maseni broj199
broj neutrona120
relative atomic mass
198,968766573 ± 0,000000581 Da
g-factor
0,18033333333333 ± 0,00053333333333333
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
3,139 ± 0,007 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,51 ± 0,016
datum otkrića1937
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

200Au

Maseni broj200
broj neutrona121
relative atomic mass
199,970756558 ± 0,000028681 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
48,4 ± 0,3 m
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1951
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

201Au

Maseni broj201
broj neutrona122
relative atomic mass
200,971657678 ± 0,000003455 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
26 ± 0,8 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1952
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

202Au

Maseni broj202
broj neutrona123
relative atomic mass
201,973856 ± 0,000025 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
28,4 ± 1,2 s
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1967
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

203Au

Maseni broj203
broj neutrona124
relative atomic mass
202,975154492 ± 0,000003309 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
60 ± 6 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1952
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

204Au

Maseni broj204
broj neutrona125
relative atomic mass
203,97811 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
38,3 ± 1,3 s
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

205Au

Maseni broj205
broj neutrona126
relative atomic mass
204,980064 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
32 ± 1,4 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

206Au

Maseni broj206
broj neutrona127
relative atomic mass
205,984766 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
47 ± 11 s
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića2009
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

207Au

Maseni broj207
broj neutrona128
relative atomic mass
206,988577 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

208Au

Maseni broj208
broj neutrona129
relative atomic mass
207,993655 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

209Au

Maseni broj209
broj neutrona130
relative atomic mass
208,997606 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

210Au

Maseni broj210
broj neutrona131
relative atomic mass
210,002877 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gold-crystals

historija

otkrivač ili izumiteljKnown to the ancients.
mjesto otkrića
datum otkrića
EtimologijaAnglo-Saxon: geolo (yellow); symbol from Latin: aurum (shining dawn).
pronunciationGOLD (engleski)

izvor

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,004 mg/kg
natural abundance (okean)
0,000004 mg/L
natural abundance (ljudsko tijelo)
0,00001 %
natural abundance (Meteoroidi)
0,000017 %
natural abundance (Sunce)
0,0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00000006 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.5239
2p4.4868
2s20.6302
3d13.4917
3p22.297
3s23.2372
4d37.472
4f38.3504
4p35.4532
4s34.5868
5d58.8735
5p53.83
5s51.6725
6s68.062