Aurum, Emas

Aurum, Emas (Au)

chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79
Atomic Number79
Atomic Weight196.966569
Nombor jisim197
Group11
Period6
Blockd
proton79 p+
neutron118 n0
Elektron79 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Au (Aurum, Emas)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
135 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
124 pm
Metallic Radius
134 pm
ionic radius
137 pm
Crystal Radius
151 pm
Jejari van der Waals
214 pm
ketumpatan
19.3 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Aurum, Emas0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
Pertalian elektron
2.30863 eV/particle
ionization energy
9.225553 eV/particle
ionization energy of Au (Aurum, Emas)
Entalpi pengewapan
340 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
12.68 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
368.2 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Model Bohr: Au (Aurum, Emas)
Elektron valens1
Teori ion Lewis: Au (Aurum, Emas)
tatarajah elektron[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s1
Enhanced Model Bohr of Au (Aurum, Emas)
Orbital Diagram of Au (Aurum, Emas)
Keadaan pengoksidaan-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 5
Keelektronegatifan
2.4
Electrophilicity Index
2.404200854149471 eV/particle
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3,109.15 K
Melting Point
1,337.33 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
rupa
warna
Gold
rupametallic yellow
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
Pengembangan terma
0.0000142 1/K
molar heat capacity
25.418 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.129 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
45 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.000000022 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
kemagnetan
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.00000000178 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000351 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000344
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
4.08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
2.5 MPa
Modulus pukal
220 GPa
shear modulus
27 GPa
Young's modulus
78 GPa
Nisbah Poisson
0.44
Kelajuan bunyi
1,740 m/s
pengelasan
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIB
IUPAC GroupIB
Glawe Number66
Mendeleev Number73
Pettifor Number70
Geochemical Classnoble metal
Goldschmidt classificationsiderophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
36 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
98.7
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.017
Nombor kuantum2S1/2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Gold

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes42
Natural Isotopes1

168Au

Nombor jisim168
nombor neutron89
jisim atom relatif
168.002716 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)

169Au

Nombor jisim169
nombor neutron90
jisim atom relatif
168.99808 ± 0.00032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

170Au

Nombor jisim170
nombor neutron91
jisim atom relatif
169.996024 ± 0.000216 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
290 ± 50 us
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2002
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)89%
α (α emission)11%

171Au

Nombor jisim171
nombor neutron92
jisim atom relatif
170.991881533 ± 0.000022236 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
22.3 ± 2.4 us
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1997
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)100%
α (α emission)

172Au

Nombor jisim172
nombor neutron93
jisim atom relatif
171.989996704 ± 0.000060287 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
28 ± 4 ms
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1993
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
p (proton emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

173Au

Nombor jisim173
nombor neutron94
jisim atom relatif
172.986224263 ± 0.000024458 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
25.5 ± 0.8 ms
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1983
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)86%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

174Au

Nombor jisim174
nombor neutron95
jisim atom relatif
173.984908 ± 0.000109 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
139 ± 3 ms
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1983
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)90%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

175Au

Nombor jisim175
nombor neutron96
jisim atom relatif
174.981316375 ± 0.000041399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
200 ± 3 ms
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1975
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)88%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

176Au

Nombor jisim176
nombor neutron97
jisim atom relatif
175.980116925 ± 0.000035625 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.05 ± 0.01 s
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1975
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)75%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

177Au

Nombor jisim177
nombor neutron98
jisim atom relatif
176.976869701 ± 0.0000107 Da
g-factor
2.3 ± 0.1
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.501 ± 0.02 s
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1968
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)40%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)60%

178Au

Nombor jisim178
nombor neutron99
jisim atom relatif
177.976056714 ± 0.000011 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.4 ± 0.5 s
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1968
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)84%
α (α emission)16%

179Au

Nombor jisim179
nombor neutron100
jisim atom relatif
178.973173666 ± 0.000012555 Da
g-factor
2.02 ± 0.1
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
7.1 ± 0.3 s
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1968
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)78%
α (α emission)22%

180Au

Nombor jisim180
nombor neutron101
jisim atom relatif
179.972489738 ± 0.000005108 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
7.9 ± 0.3 s
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1977
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.42%
α (α emission)0.58%

181Au

Nombor jisim181
nombor neutron102
jisim atom relatif
180.970079102 ± 0.000021445 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
13.7 ± 1.4 s
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1968
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)97.3%
α (α emission)2.7%

182Au

Nombor jisim182
nombor neutron103
jisim atom relatif
181.969614433 ± 0.000020143 Da
g-factor
0.65 ± 0.05
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
15.5 ± 0.4 s
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1970
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.13%

183Au

Nombor jisim183
nombor neutron104
jisim atom relatif
182.967588106 ± 0.000010116 Da
g-factor
0.784 ± 0.008
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
42.8 ± 1 s
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1968
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.45%
α (α emission)0.55%

184Au

Nombor jisim184
nombor neutron105
jisim atom relatif
183.967451523 ± 0.000023912 Da
g-factor
0.412 ± 0.004
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
20.6 ± 0.9 s
Spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
4.7 ± 0.3
tarikh penemuan1969
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.013%

185Au

Nombor jisim185
nombor neutron106
jisim atom relatif
184.965798871 ± 0.0000028 Da
g-factor
0.864 ± 0.008
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.25 ± 0.06 m
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-1.1 ± 0.1
tarikh penemuan1960
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.74%
α (α emission)0.26%

186Au

Nombor jisim186
nombor neutron107
jisim atom relatif
185.965952703 ± 0.000022509 Da
g-factor
-0.42 ± 0.01
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
10.7 ± 0.5 m
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
3.1 ± 0.06
tarikh penemuan1960
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.0008%

187Au

Nombor jisim187
nombor neutron108
jisim atom relatif
186.964542147 ± 0.000024153 Da
g-factor
1.066 ± 0.03
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8.3 ± 0.2 m
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1955
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

188Au

Nombor jisim188
nombor neutron109
jisim atom relatif
187.965247966 ± 0.0000029 Da
g-factor
-0.07 ± 0.03
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8.84 ± 0.06 m
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1955
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

189Au

Nombor jisim189
nombor neutron110
jisim atom relatif
188.963948286 ± 0.000021558 Da
g-factor
0.984 ± 0.028
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
28.7 ± 0.4 m
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1955
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)3%

190Au

Nombor jisim190
nombor neutron111
jisim atom relatif
189.964751746 ± 0.0000037 Da
g-factor
-0.065 ± 0.007
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
42.8 ± 1 m
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1959
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)1%

191Au

Nombor jisim191
nombor neutron112
jisim atom relatif
190.963716452 ± 0.000005288 Da
g-factor
0.090933333333333 ± 0.0006
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.18 ± 0.08 h
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.72 ± 0.02
tarikh penemuan1954
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

192Au

Nombor jisim192
nombor neutron113
jisim atom relatif
191.964817615 ± 0.000016991 Da
g-factor
-0.0107 ± 0.0015
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.94 ± 0.09 h
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.228 ± 0.008
tarikh penemuan1948
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

193Au

Nombor jisim193
nombor neutron114
jisim atom relatif
192.964138442 ± 0.000009311 Da
g-factor
0.092733333333333 ± 0.00033333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
17.65 ± 0.15 h
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.66 ± 0.02
tarikh penemuan1948
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

194Au

Nombor jisim194
nombor neutron115
jisim atom relatif
193.965419051 ± 0.000002273 Da
g-factor
0.076 ± 0.0013
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
38.02 ± 0.1 h
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.24 ± 0.009
tarikh penemuan1948
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

195Au

Nombor jisim195
nombor neutron116
jisim atom relatif
194.965037823 ± 0.000001201 Da
g-factor
0.098733333333333 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
186.01 ± 0.06 d
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.607 ± 0.018
tarikh penemuan1948
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

196Au

Nombor jisim196
nombor neutron117
jisim atom relatif
195.966571213 ± 0.000003179 Da
g-factor
0.29415 ± 0.00025
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
6.165 ± 0.011 d
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.81 ± 0.07
tarikh penemuan1937
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)93%
β (β decay)7%

197Au

Nombor jisim197
nombor neutron118
jisim atom relatif
196.966570103 ± 0.000000581 Da
g-factor
0.0968 ± 0.00013333333333333
natural abundance
100
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.547 ± 0.016
tarikh penemuan1935
parity+

198Au

Nombor jisim198
nombor neutron119
jisim atom relatif
197.968243714 ± 0.000000579 Da
g-factor
0.29555 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.69464 ± 0.00014 d
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.64 ± 0.019
tarikh penemuan1937
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

199Au

Nombor jisim199
nombor neutron120
jisim atom relatif
198.968766573 ± 0.000000581 Da
g-factor
0.18033333333333 ± 0.00053333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.139 ± 0.007 d
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.51 ± 0.016
tarikh penemuan1937
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

200Au

Nombor jisim200
nombor neutron121
jisim atom relatif
199.970756558 ± 0.000028681 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
48.4 ± 0.3 m
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1951
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

201Au

Nombor jisim201
nombor neutron122
jisim atom relatif
200.971657678 ± 0.000003455 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
26 ± 0.8 m
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1952
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

202Au

Nombor jisim202
nombor neutron123
jisim atom relatif
201.973856 ± 0.000025 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
28.4 ± 1.2 s
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1967
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

203Au

Nombor jisim203
nombor neutron124
jisim atom relatif
202.975154492 ± 0.000003309 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
60 ± 6 s
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1952
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

204Au

Nombor jisim204
nombor neutron125
jisim atom relatif
203.97811 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
38.3 ± 1.3 s
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1972
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

205Au

Nombor jisim205
nombor neutron126
jisim atom relatif
204.980064 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
32 ± 1.4 s
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1994
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

206Au

Nombor jisim206
nombor neutron127
jisim atom relatif
205.984766 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
47 ± 11 s
Spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2009
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

207Au

Nombor jisim207
nombor neutron128
jisim atom relatif
206.988577 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

208Au

Nombor jisim208
nombor neutron129
jisim atom relatif
207.993655 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

209Au

Nombor jisim209
nombor neutron130
jisim atom relatif
208.997606 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

210Au

Nombor jisim210
nombor neutron131
jisim atom relatif
210.002877 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gold-crystals

sejarah

penemu atau perekaKnown to the ancients.
tempat penemuan
tarikh penemuan
EtimologiAnglo-Saxon: geolo (yellow); symbol from Latin: aurum (shining dawn).
sebutanGOLD (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.004 mg/kg
natural abundance (lautan)
0.000004 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
0.00001 %
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0.000017 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000006 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.5239
2p4.4868
2s20.6302
3d13.4917
3p22.297
3s23.2372
4d37.472
4f38.3504
4p35.4532
4s34.5868
5d58.8735
5p53.83
5s51.6725
6s68.062