Auri, Dhahabu

Auri, Dhahabu (Au)

chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79
Atomic Number79
Atomic Weight196.966569
mass number197
Group11
Period6
Blockd
protoni79 p+
nyutroni118 n0
elektroni79 e-
Animated Bohr model of Au (Auri, Dhahabu)

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
135 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
124 pm
Metallic Radius
134 pm
ionic radius
137 pm
Crystal Radius
151 pm
Van der Waals radius
214 pm
msongamano
19.3 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Auri, Dhahabu0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

nishati
proton affinity
electron affinity
2.30863 eV/particle
ionization energy
9.225553 eV/particle
ionization energy of Au (Auri, Dhahabu)
enthalpy of vaporization
340 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
12.68 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
368.2 kJ/mol
elektroni
Mzingo elektroni2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Bohr model: Au (Auri, Dhahabu)
valence electron1
Lewis structure: Au (Auri, Dhahabu)
electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s1
Enhanced Bohr model of Au (Auri, Dhahabu)
Orbital Diagram of Au (Auri, Dhahabu)
oxidation number-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 5
electronegativity
2.4
Electrophilicity Index
2.404200854149471 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3,109.15 K
Melting Point
1,337.33 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
Kiwango utatu
appearance
Rangi
Gold
appearancemetallic yellow
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0.0000142 1/K
molar heat capacity
25.418 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.129 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
45 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.000000022 m Ω
superconductivity
Uga sumaku
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.00000000178 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000351 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000344
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
4.08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
2.5 MPa
bulk modulus
220 GPa
shear modulus
27 GPa
Young's modulus
78 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0.44
speed of sound
1,740 m/s
classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIB
IUPAC GroupIB
Glawe Number66
Mendeleev Number73
Pettifor Number70
Geochemical Classnoble metal
Goldschmidt classificationsiderophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
36 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
98.7
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.017
quantum number2S1/2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Gold

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes42
Natural Isotopes1

168Au

mass number168
neutron number89
relative atomic mass
168.002716 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi
parity

hali ya kuozaintensity
p (proton emission)

169Au

mass number169
neutron number90
relative atomic mass
168.99808 ± 0.00032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
p (proton emission)
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

170Au

mass number170
neutron number91
relative atomic mass
169.996024 ± 0.000216 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
290 ± 50 us
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi2002
parity

hali ya kuozaintensity
p (proton emission)89%
α (α emission)11%

171Au

mass number171
neutron number92
relative atomic mass
170.991881533 ± 0.000022236 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
22.3 ± 2.4 us
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1997
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
p (proton emission)100%
α (α emission)

172Au

mass number172
neutron number93
relative atomic mass
171.989996704 ± 0.000060287 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
28 ± 4 ms
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1993
parity

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
p (proton emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

173Au

mass number173
neutron number94
relative atomic mass
172.986224263 ± 0.000024458 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
25.5 ± 0.8 ms
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1983
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)86%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

174Au

mass number174
neutron number95
relative atomic mass
173.984908 ± 0.000109 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
139 ± 3 ms
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1983
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)90%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

175Au

mass number175
neutron number96
relative atomic mass
174.981316375 ± 0.000041399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
200 ± 3 ms
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1975
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)88%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

176Au

mass number176
neutron number97
relative atomic mass
175.980116925 ± 0.000035625 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
1.05 ± 0.01 s
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1975
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)75%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

177Au

mass number177
neutron number98
relative atomic mass
176.976869701 ± 0.0000107 Da
g-factor
2.3 ± 0.1
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
1.501 ± 0.02 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1968
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)40%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)60%

178Au

mass number178
neutron number99
relative atomic mass
177.976056714 ± 0.000011 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
3.4 ± 0.5 s
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1968
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)84%
α (α emission)16%

179Au

mass number179
neutron number100
relative atomic mass
178.973173666 ± 0.000012555 Da
g-factor
2.02 ± 0.1
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
7.1 ± 0.3 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1968
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)78%
α (α emission)22%

180Au

mass number180
neutron number101
relative atomic mass
179.972489738 ± 0.000005108 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
7.9 ± 0.3 s
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1977
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.42%
α (α emission)0.58%

181Au

mass number181
neutron number102
relative atomic mass
180.970079102 ± 0.000021445 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
13.7 ± 1.4 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1968
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)97.3%
α (α emission)2.7%

182Au

mass number182
neutron number103
relative atomic mass
181.969614433 ± 0.000020143 Da
g-factor
0.65 ± 0.05
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
15.5 ± 0.4 s
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1970
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.13%

183Au

mass number183
neutron number104
relative atomic mass
182.967588106 ± 0.000010116 Da
g-factor
0.784 ± 0.008
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
42.8 ± 1 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1968
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.45%
α (α emission)0.55%

184Au

mass number184
neutron number105
relative atomic mass
183.967451523 ± 0.000023912 Da
g-factor
0.412 ± 0.004
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
20.6 ± 0.9 s
spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
4.7 ± 0.3
Uvumbuzi1969
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.013%

185Au

mass number185
neutron number106
relative atomic mass
184.965798871 ± 0.0000028 Da
g-factor
0.864 ± 0.008
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
4.25 ± 0.06 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-1.1 ± 0.1
Uvumbuzi1960
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.74%
α (α emission)0.26%

186Au

mass number186
neutron number107
relative atomic mass
185.965952703 ± 0.000022509 Da
g-factor
-0.42 ± 0.01
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
10.7 ± 0.5 m
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
3.1 ± 0.06
Uvumbuzi1960
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.0008%

187Au

mass number187
neutron number108
relative atomic mass
186.964542147 ± 0.000024153 Da
g-factor
1.066 ± 0.03
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
8.3 ± 0.2 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1955
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

188Au

mass number188
neutron number109
relative atomic mass
187.965247966 ± 0.0000029 Da
g-factor
-0.07 ± 0.03
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
8.84 ± 0.06 m
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1955
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

189Au

mass number189
neutron number110
relative atomic mass
188.963948286 ± 0.000021558 Da
g-factor
0.984 ± 0.028
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
28.7 ± 0.4 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1955
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)3%

190Au

mass number190
neutron number111
relative atomic mass
189.964751746 ± 0.0000037 Da
g-factor
-0.065 ± 0.007
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
42.8 ± 1 m
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1959
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)1%

191Au

mass number191
neutron number112
relative atomic mass
190.963716452 ± 0.000005288 Da
g-factor
0.090933333333333 ± 0.0006
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
3.18 ± 0.08 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.72 ± 0.02
Uvumbuzi1954
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

192Au

mass number192
neutron number113
relative atomic mass
191.964817615 ± 0.000016991 Da
g-factor
-0.0107 ± 0.0015
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
4.94 ± 0.09 h
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.228 ± 0.008
Uvumbuzi1948
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

193Au

mass number193
neutron number114
relative atomic mass
192.964138442 ± 0.000009311 Da
g-factor
0.092733333333333 ± 0.00033333333333333
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
17.65 ± 0.15 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.66 ± 0.02
Uvumbuzi1948
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

194Au

mass number194
neutron number115
relative atomic mass
193.965419051 ± 0.000002273 Da
g-factor
0.076 ± 0.0013
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
38.02 ± 0.1 h
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.24 ± 0.009
Uvumbuzi1948
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

195Au

mass number195
neutron number116
relative atomic mass
194.965037823 ± 0.000001201 Da
g-factor
0.098733333333333 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
186.01 ± 0.06 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.607 ± 0.018
Uvumbuzi1948
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

196Au

mass number196
neutron number117
relative atomic mass
195.966571213 ± 0.000003179 Da
g-factor
0.29415 ± 0.00025
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
6.165 ± 0.011 d
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.81 ± 0.07
Uvumbuzi1937
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)93%
β (β decay)7%

197Au

mass number197
neutron number118
relative atomic mass
196.966570103 ± 0.000000581 Da
g-factor
0.0968 ± 0.00013333333333333
natural abundance
100
Unururifustable isotope
NusumaishaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.547 ± 0.016
Uvumbuzi1935
parity+

198Au

mass number198
neutron number119
relative atomic mass
197.968243714 ± 0.000000579 Da
g-factor
0.29555 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
2.69464 ± 0.00014 d
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.64 ± 0.019
Uvumbuzi1937
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

199Au

mass number199
neutron number120
relative atomic mass
198.968766573 ± 0.000000581 Da
g-factor
0.18033333333333 ± 0.00053333333333333
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
3.139 ± 0.007 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.51 ± 0.016
Uvumbuzi1937
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

200Au

mass number200
neutron number121
relative atomic mass
199.970756558 ± 0.000028681 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
48.4 ± 0.3 m
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1951
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

201Au

mass number201
neutron number122
relative atomic mass
200.971657678 ± 0.000003455 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
26 ± 0.8 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1952
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

202Au

mass number202
neutron number123
relative atomic mass
201.973856 ± 0.000025 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
28.4 ± 1.2 s
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1967
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

203Au

mass number203
neutron number124
relative atomic mass
202.975154492 ± 0.000003309 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
60 ± 6 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1952
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

204Au

mass number204
neutron number125
relative atomic mass
203.97811 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
38.3 ± 1.3 s
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1972
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

205Au

mass number205
neutron number126
relative atomic mass
204.980064 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
32 ± 1.4 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1994
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

206Au

mass number206
neutron number127
relative atomic mass
205.984766 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
47 ± 11 s
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi2009
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

207Au

mass number207
neutron number128
relative atomic mass
206.988577 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi2010
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

208Au

mass number208
neutron number129
relative atomic mass
207.993655 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi2010
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

209Au

mass number209
neutron number130
relative atomic mass
208.997606 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi2010
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

210Au

mass number210
neutron number131
relative atomic mass
210.002877 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi2010
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gold-crystals

historia

mgunduzi au mvumbuziKnown to the ancients.
location of discovery
Uvumbuzi
EtimolojiaAnglo-Saxon: geolo (yellow); symbol from Latin: aurum (shining dawn).
pronunciationGOLD (Kiingereza)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.004 mg/kg
natural abundance (Bahari)
0.000004 mg/L
natural abundance (Mwili)
0.00001 %
natural abundance (Kimondo)
0.000017 %
natural abundance (Jua)
0.0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000006 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.5239
2p4.4868
2s20.6302
3d13.4917
3p22.297
3s23.2372
4d37.472
4f38.3504
4p35.4532
4s34.5868
5d58.8735
5p53.83
5s51.6725
6s68.062