Bismuth

Bismuth (Bi)

White crystalline metal with a pink tinge, belongs to group 15. Most diamagnetic of all metals and has the lowest thermal conductivity of all the elements except mercury. Lead-free bismuth compounds are used in cosmetics and medical procedures. Burns in the air and produces a blue flame. In 1753, C.G. Junine first demonstrated that it was different from lead.
Atomic Number83
Atomic Weight208.9804
Mass Number209
Group15
Period6
Blockp
Protons83 p+
Neutrons126 n0
Electrons83 e-
Bismuth crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Bi (Bismuth) Enhanced Bohr Model of Bi (Bismuth) Bohr Model: Bi (Bismuth) Orbital Diagram of Bi (Bismuth)

Properties

Atomic Radius
160 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
151 pm
Metallic Radius
151 pm
Ionic Radius
96 pm
Crystal Radius
110 pm
Van der Waals Radius
207 pm
Density
9.79 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.942362 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
7.285516 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
172 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
209.6 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Valence Electrons5
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Electronegativity
1.9
Electrophilicity
1.334075610943783 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
1,837.15 K
Melting Point
544.552 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
4,620.15 K
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Gray
Appearancelustrous silver
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000134 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
25.52 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.122 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
0.77 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.0000013 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.000000017 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.0000000036 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.00017
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureBase Centered Monoclinic (RHL)
Lattice Constant
4.75 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, 1.925622, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
2.25 MPa
Bulk Modulus
31 GPa
Shear Modulus
12 GPa
Young Modulus
32 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.33
Speed of Sound
1,790 m/s
Classification
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupVB
IUPAC GroupVA
Glawe Number92
Mendeleev Number97
Pettifor Number87
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
48 ± 4 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
0.034
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.000006
Quantum Numbers4S3/2
Space Group12 (C12/m1)

Isotopes of Bismuth

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes40
Radioactive Isotopes41

184Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
184.001347 ± 0.000131 Da
Mass Number184
G-Factor
Half Life
6.6 ± 1.5 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2003
Parity+

184Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

185Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
184.9976 ± 0.000087 Da
Mass Number185
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1996
Parity-

185Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%
α (α emission)%

186Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
185.996623169 ± 0.0000182 Da
Mass Number186
G-Factor
Half Life
14.8 ± 0.7 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

186Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ SF (β+-delayed fission)0.011%

187Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
186.993147272 ± 0.00001074 Da
Mass Number187
G-Factor
Half Life
37 ± 2 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1999
Parity-

187Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

188Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
187.992276064 ± 0.000012001 Da
Mass Number188
G-Factor
Half Life
60 ± 3 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1980
Parity+

188Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ SF (β+-delayed fission)0.0014%

189Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
188.989195139 ± 0.000022384 Da
Mass Number189
G-Factor
Half Life
688 ± 5 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1973
Parity-

189Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

190Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
189.988624828 ± 0.000022515 Da
Mass Number190
G-Factor
Half Life
6.3 ± 0.1 s
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

190Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)77%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)23%
β+ SF (β+-delayed fission)6%

191Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
190.985786972 ± 0.000008037 Da
Mass Number191
G-Factor
Half Life
12.4 ± 0.3 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity-

191Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)51%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

192Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
191.985470077 ± 0.000032326 Da
Mass Number192
G-Factor
Half Life
34.6 ± 0.9 s
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

192Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)88%
α (α emission)12%

193Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
192.98294722 ± 0.000008132 Da
Mass Number193
G-Factor
Half Life
63.6 ± 3 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity-

193Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)96.5%
α (α emission)3.5%

194Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
193.982798581 ± 0.000005638 Da
Mass Number194
G-Factor
Half Life
95 ± 3 s
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

194Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.46%

195Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
194.980648759 ± 0.000005675 Da
Mass Number195
G-Factor
Half Life
183 ± 4 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity-

195Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.03%

196Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
195.980666509 ± 0.000026224 Da
Mass Number196
G-Factor
Half Life
5.13 ± 0.2 m
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1976
Parity+

196Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.00115%

197Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
196.978864927 ± 0.000008946 Da
Mass Number197
G-Factor
Half Life
9.33 ± 0.5 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity-

197Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)%

198Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
197.979201316 ± 0.000029598 Da
Mass Number198
G-Factor
Half Life
10.3 ± 0.3 m
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

198Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

199Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
198.977672841 ± 0.000011395 Da
Mass Number199
G-Factor
1.0222222222222 ± 0.088888888888889
Half Life
27 ± 1 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1950
Parity-

199Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

200Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
199.97813129 ± 0.00002437 Da
Mass Number200
G-Factor
Half Life
36.4 ± 0.5 m
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

200Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

201Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
200.976995017 ± 0.000013072 Da
Mass Number201
G-Factor
1.0666666666667 ± 0.066666666666667
Half Life
103 ± 3 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1950
Parity-

201Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

202Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
201.977723042 ± 0.000015032 Da
Mass Number202
G-Factor
0.848 ± 0.0028
Half Life
1.72 ± 0.05 h
Spin5
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

202Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)1%

203Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
202.976892077 ± 0.000013717 Da
Mass Number203
G-Factor
0.88866666666667 ± 0.0028888888888889
Half Life
11.76 ± 0.05 h
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1950
Parity-

203Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

204Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
203.977835687 ± 0.000009854 Da
Mass Number204
G-Factor
0.717 ± 0.0025
Half Life
11.22 ± 0.1 h
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1947
Parity+

204Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

205Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
204.977385182 ± 0.000005161 Da
Mass Number205
G-Factor
0.89933333333333 ± 0.0015555555555556
Half Life
14.91 ± 0.07 d
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.81 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

205Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

206Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
205.978498843 ± 0.000008193 Da
Mass Number206
G-Factor
0.7235 ± 0.0013333333333333
Half Life
6.243 ± 0.003 d
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
-0.54 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1947
Parity+

206Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

207Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
206.978470551 ± 0.000002573 Da
Mass Number207
G-Factor
0.90508888888889 ± 0.00044444444444444
Half Life
31.22 ± 0.17 y
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.76 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1950
Parity-

207Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

208Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
207.97974206 ± 0.000002474 Da
Mass Number208
G-Factor
0.9144 ± 0.002
Half Life
368 ± 4 ky
Spin5
Quadrupole Moment
-0.7 ± 0.08
Discovery Year1953
Parity+

208Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

209Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
100
Relative Atomic Mass
208.980398599 ± 0.000001465 Da
Mass Number209
G-Factor
Half Life
20.1 ± 0.8 Ey
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.516 ± 0.015
Discovery Year1924
Parity-

209Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

210Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
209.984120237 ± 0.000001463 Da
Mass Number210
G-Factor
-0.0443 ± 0.0001
Half Life
5.012 ± 0.005 d
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.19 ± 0.006
Discovery Year1905
Parity-

210Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)13.2%

211Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
210.987268715 ± 0.000005842 Da
Mass Number211
G-Factor
0.85555555555556 ± 0.0066666666666667
Half Life
2.14 ± 0.02 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.7 ± 0.3
Discovery Year1905
Parity-

211Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β (β decay)0.276%

212Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
211.99128503 ± 0.000001989 Da
Mass Number212
G-Factor
0.32 ± 0.04
Half Life
60.55 ± 0.06 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.1 ± 0.4
Discovery Year1905
Parity-

212Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)64.06%
α (α emission)35.94%
βα (β-delayed α emission)0.014%

213Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
212.99438357 ± 0.000005455 Da
Mass Number213
G-Factor
0.822 ± 0.0015555555555556
Half Life
45.6 ± 0.04 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.83 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1947
Parity-

213Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)97.91%
α (α emission)2.09%

214Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
213.998710909 ± 0.000012033 Da
Mass Number214
G-Factor
Half Life
19.9 ± 0.4 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1904
Parity-

214Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)99.979%
α (α emission)0.021%
βα (β-delayed α emission)0.003%

215Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
215.001749095 ± 0.000006037 Da
Mass Number215
G-Factor
Half Life
7.62 ± 0.13 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1953
Parity-

215Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

216Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
216.006305985 ± 0.000012 Da
Mass Number216
G-Factor
Half Life
2.21 ± 0.04 m
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1989
Parity-

216Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

217Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
217.009372 ± 0.000019 Da
Mass Number217
G-Factor
Half Life
98.5 ± 1.3 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1998
Parity-

217Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

218Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
218.014188 ± 0.000029 Da
Mass Number218
G-Factor
Half Life
33 ± 1 s
Spin8
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1998
Parity-

218Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

219Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
219.01752 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number219
G-Factor
Half Life
8.7 ± 2.9 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity-

219Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

220Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
220.022501 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number220
G-Factor
Half Life
9.5 ± 5.7 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity-

220Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

221Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
221.02598 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number221
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity-

221Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

222Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
222.031079 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number222
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity-

222Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

223Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
223.034611 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number223
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity-

223Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

224Bi

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
224.039796 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number224
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity-

224Bi Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

History

Bismuth has been known since ancient times, so no one person is credited with its discovery. The element was confused in early times with tin and lead because of its resemblance to those elements. In 1753, French chemist Claude François Geoffroy demonstrated that this metal is distinct from lead and tin. From the German Weisse Masse, meaning white mass

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Etymology (Name Origin)German: bisemutum, (white mass), Now spelled wismut.
PronunciationBIZ-meth (English)
Bismuth is considered to be non-toxic
Bismuth has unusually high electrical resistance for a metal

Uses

Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is used as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers. Bismuth oxychloride is used in cosmetics, as a pigment in paint for eye shadows, hair sprays and nail polishes. It has also been used as a replacement for lead in shot, bullets and less-lethal riot gun ammunition. Main use is in pharmaceuticals and low melting point alloys used as fuses.

Sources

It can be found free in nature and in minerals like bismuthine (Bi2O3) and in bismuth ochre (Bi2O3)

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.0085 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00002 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.0000069 %
Abundance in Sun
0.000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000007 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.6018
2p4.533
2s21.824
3d13.4585
3p23.0678
3s24.1145
4d37.7608
4f37.9308
4p36.1496
4s35.2928
5d58.756
5p53.979
5s51.971
6p69.6602
6s67.76