Polonium

Polonium (Po)

Rare radioactive metallic element, belongs to group 16 of the periodic table. Over 30 known isotopes exist, the most of all elements. Po-209 has a half-life of 103 years. Possible uses in heating spacecraft. Discovered by Marie Curie in 1898 in a sample of pitchblende.
Atomic Number84
Atomic Weight209
Mass Number186
Group16
Period6
Blockp
Protons84 p+
Neutrons102 n0
Electrons84 e-
2019-11-22 Spark plugs and static eliminators with radioactive polonium at museum display.jpg 671067N.jpg Electron shell 084 polonium.png Polonium spectrum visible.png Animated Bohr Model of Po (Polonium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Po (Polonium) Bohr Model: Po (Polonium) Orbital Diagram of Po (Polonium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
190 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
145 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
94 pm
Crystal Radius
108 pm
Van der Waals Radius
197 pm
Density
9.2 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
Heat of Vaporization
102.9 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6
Valence Electrons6
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4
Oxidation States-2, 2, 4, 5, 6
Electronegativity
2
Electrophilicity
2.0413454866441514 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
1,235.15 K
Melting Point
527.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
2.3 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000043 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Type
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Cubic (SC)
Lattice Constant
3.35 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
Classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupVIB
IUPAC GroupVIA
Glawe Number93
Mendeleev Number103
Pettifor Number91
Geochemical ClassU/Th decay series
Goldschmidt Classsynthetic
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
44 ± 4 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
AllotropesAlpha Polonium, Beta Polonium
Neutron Cross Section
0.5
Neutron Mass Absorption
Quantum Numbers3P2
Space Group221 (Pm-3m)

Isotopes of Polonium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes42
Radioactive Isotopes42

186Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
186.004403174 ± 0.000019622 Da
Mass Number186
G-Factor
0
Half Life
34 ± 12 us
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2005
Parity+

186Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
p (proton emission)%

187Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
187.003031482 ± 0.00003503 Da
Mass Number187
G-Factor
Half Life
1.4 ± 0.25 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2005
Parity-

187Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

188Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
187.999415586 ± 0.000021438 Da
Mass Number188
G-Factor
0
Half Life
270 ± 30 us
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1999
Parity+

188Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

189Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
188.998473425 ± 0.000023681 Da
Mass Number189
G-Factor
Half Life
3.5 ± 0.5 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1999
Parity-

189Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

190Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
189.995101731 ± 0.000014131 Da
Mass Number190
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.45 ± 0.05 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1996
Parity+

190Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

191Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
190.994558494 ± 0.000007624 Da
Mass Number191
G-Factor
Half Life
22 ± 1 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1993
Parity-

191Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

192Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
191.991340274 ± 0.000011416 Da
Mass Number192
G-Factor
0
Half Life
32.2 ± 0.3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

192Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

193Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
192.991062421 ± 0.000015599 Da
Mass Number193
G-Factor
Half Life
399 ± 34 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-1.3 ± 0.3
Discovery Year1967
Parity-

193Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

194Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
193.988186058 ± 0.00001386 Da
Mass Number194
G-Factor
0
Half Life
392 ± 4 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

194Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

195Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
194.988065781 ± 0.000006486 Da
Mass Number195
G-Factor
-0.4 ± 0.026666666666667
Half Life
4.64 ± 0.09 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.9 ± 0.3
Discovery Year1967
Parity-

195Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)94%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

196Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
195.985540722 ± 0.000005778 Da
Mass Number196
G-Factor
0
Half Life
5.63 ± 0.07 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

196Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)94%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

197Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
196.985621939 ± 0.000010585 Da
Mass Number197
G-Factor
-0.58666666666667 ± 0.046666666666667
Half Life
53.6 ± 0.9 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.4 ± 0.2
Discovery Year1965
Parity-

197Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
α (α emission)44%

198Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
197.983388753 ± 0.000018705 Da
Mass Number198
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.76 ± 0.024 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1965
Parity+

198Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)57%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)43%

199Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
198.983640445 ± 0.000005828 Da
Mass Number199
G-Factor
-0.60666666666667 ± 0.046666666666667
Half Life
5.47 ± 0.15 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.27 ± 0.15
Discovery Year1965
Parity-

199Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)92.5%
α (α emission)7.5%

200Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
199.981812355 ± 0.000008136 Da
Mass Number200
G-Factor
0
Half Life
11.51 ± 0.08 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

200Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)88.9%
α (α emission)11.1%

201Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
200.982263799 ± 0.000005305 Da
Mass Number201
G-Factor
-0.65333333333333 ± 0.046666666666667
Half Life
15.6 ± 0.1 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.1 ± 0.1
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

201Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)98.87%
α (α emission)1.13%

202Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
201.980738934 ± 0.000009307 Da
Mass Number202
G-Factor
0
Half Life
44.6 ± 0.4 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

202Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)98.08%
α (α emission)1.92%

203Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
202.981416072 ± 0.000004981 Da
Mass Number203
G-Factor
0.296 ± 0.02
Half Life
36.7 ± 0.5 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.17 ± 0.1
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

203Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.89%
α (α emission)0.11%

204Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
203.980310078 ± 0.000010811 Da
Mass Number204
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.519 ± 0.012 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

204Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.33%
α (α emission)0.67%

205Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
204.981190006 ± 0.000010798 Da
Mass Number205
G-Factor
0.304 ± 0.024
Half Life
1.74 ± 0.08 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

205Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.96%
α (α emission)0.04%

206Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
205.980473662 ± 0.000004306 Da
Mass Number206
G-Factor
0
Half Life
8.8 ± 0.1 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1947
Parity+

206Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)94.55%
α (α emission)5.45%

207Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
206.981593334 ± 0.000007148 Da
Mass Number207
G-Factor
0.316 ± 0.024
Half Life
5.8 ± 0.02 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.28 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1947
Parity-

207Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.021%

208Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
207.981246035 ± 0.000001795 Da
Mass Number208
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.898 ± 0.002 y
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1947
Parity+

208Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)0.0042%

209Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
208.982430361 ± 0.000001909 Da
Mass Number209
G-Factor
1.36 ± 0.16
Half Life
124 ± 3 y
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1949
Parity-

209Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)99.546%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)0.454%

210Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
209.982873686 ± 0.00000123 Da
Mass Number210
G-Factor
0
Half Life
138.376 ± 0.002 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1898
Parity+

210Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

211Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
210.986653171 ± 0.000001347 Da
Mass Number211
G-Factor
-0.26666666666667 ± 0.017777777777778
Half Life
516 ± 3 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.77 ± 0.15
Discovery Year1913
Parity+

211Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

212Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
211.988867982 ± 0.000001237 Da
Mass Number212
G-Factor
0
Half Life
294.4 ± 0.8 ns
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1906
Parity+

212Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

213Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
212.992857154 ± 0.000003277 Da
Mass Number213
G-Factor
Half Life
3.705 ± 0.001 us
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1947
Parity+

213Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

214Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
213.995201287 ± 0.000001556 Da
Mass Number214
G-Factor
0
Half Life
163.47 ± 0.03 us
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1912
Parity+

214Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

215Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
214.999418385 ± 0.000002276 Da
Mass Number215
G-Factor
Half Life
1.781 ± 0.005 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1911
Parity+

215Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β (β decay)2.3%

216Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
216.001913416 ± 0.000001948 Da
Mass Number216
G-Factor
0
Half Life
144 ± 0.6 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1910
Parity+

216Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
(double β decay)%

217Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
217.006316145 ± 0.000007025 Da
Mass Number217
G-Factor
Half Life
1.53 ± 0.05 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1956
Parity+

217Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)97.5%
β (β decay)2.5%

218Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
218.008971234 ± 0.000002112 Da
Mass Number218
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.097 ± 0.012 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1904
Parity+

218Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)99.98%
β (β decay)0.02%

219Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
219.013614 ± 0.000017 Da
Mass Number219
G-Factor
Half Life
10.3 ± 1 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1998
Parity+

219Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)71.8%
α (α emission)28.2%

220Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
220.016386 ± 0.000019 Da
Mass Number220
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1998
Parity+

220Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

221Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
221.021228 ± 0.000021 Da
Mass Number221
G-Factor
Half Life
2.2 ± 0.7 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

221Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

222Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
222.02414 ± 0.000043 Da
Mass Number222
G-Factor
0
Half Life
9.1 ± 7.2 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

222Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

223Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
223.02907 ± 0.00021 Da
Mass Number223
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin11/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

223Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

224Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
224.03211 ± 0.00021 Da
Mass Number224
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

224Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

225Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
225.037123 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number225
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

225Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

226Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
226.04031 ± 0.00043 Da
Mass Number226
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

226Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

227Po

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
227.04539 ± 0.00043 Da
Mass Number227
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

227Po Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

History

Polonium was discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898 in Paris. This element was the first one discovered by the Curies while they were investigating the cause of pitchblende radioactivity. The dangers of working with radioactive elements were not known when the Curies made their discoveries. Named after Poland, native country of Madam Curie

DiscoverersPierre and Marie Curie
Discovery LocationFrance
Discovery Year1898
Etymology (Name Origin)Named for Poland, native country of Marie Curie.
Pronunciationpeh-LOW-ni-em (English)
Polonium is highly dangerous and radioactive
Polonium is obtained by irradiating bismuth with high-energy neutrons or protons

Uses

Polonium is used to eliminate static electricity produced during processes such as rolling paper, wire and sheet metal. Polonium can be mixed or alloyed with beryllium to provide a source of neutrons. It is also used in anti-static brushes to eliminate dust on photographic film. Used in industrial equipment that eliminates static electricity caused by such processes as rolling paper, wire, and sheet metal.

Sources

Occurs in pitchblende from decay of bismuth.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.0000000002 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.000000000000015 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0 %
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe
0 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.6232
2p4.5428
2s22.0782
3d13.428
3p23.2851
3s24.3813
4d36.3328
4f37.8416
4p36.3328
4s35.4784
5d58.696
5p53.9755
5s51.977
6p69.7794
6s67.6692