Bismuth

Bismuth (Bi)

White crystalline metal with a pink tinge, belongs to group 15. Most diamagnetic of all metals and has the lowest thermal conductivity of all the elements except mercury. Lead-free bismuth compounds are used in cosmetics and medical procedures. Burns in the air and produces a blue flame. In 1753, C.G. Junine first demonstrated that it was different from lead.
Atomic Number83
Atomic Weight208.9804
Mass Number209
Group15
Period6
Blockp
Protons83 p+
Neutrons126 n0
Electrons83 e-
Bismuth crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
160 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
151 pm
Metallic Radius
151 pm
Ionic Radius
96 pm
Crystal Radius
110.00000000000001 pm
Van der Waals radius
206.99999999999997 pm
Density
9.79 g/cm³
Boiling Point
1,883 K
Melting Point
544.5 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Electronegativity
1.9
Electrophilicity
1.3340756109438 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.942362 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
7.285516 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
172 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
209.6 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
25.52 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.122 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
48 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States-3, 3, 5
Color
Gray
Crystal StructureBase Centered Monoclinic (RHL)
Lattice Constant
4.75 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupVB
IUPAC GroupVA
Glawe Number92
Mendeleev Number97
Pettifor Number87
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.0085 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00002 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe7×10-8%

Isotopes of Bismuth

Stable Isotopes
209Bi
Unstable Isotopes
184Bi 185Bi 186Bi 187Bi 188Bi 189Bi 190Bi 191Bi 192Bi 193Bi 194Bi 195Bi 196Bi 197Bi 198Bi 199Bi 200Bi 201Bi 202Bi 203Bi 204Bi 205Bi 206Bi 207Bi 208Bi 210Bi 211Bi 212Bi 213Bi 214Bi 215Bi 216Bi 217Bi 218Bi

History

Bismuth has been known since ancient times, so no one person is credited with its discovery. The element was confused in early times with tin and lead because of its resemblance to those elements. In 1753, French chemist Claude François Geoffroy demonstrated that this metal is distinct from lead and tin. From the German Weisse Masse, meaning white mass

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Name OriginGerman: bisemutum, (white mass), Now spelled wismut.
Bismuth is considered to be non-toxic
Bismuth has unusually high electrical resistance for a metal

Uses

Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is used as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers. Bismuth oxychloride is used in cosmetics, as a pigment in paint for eye shadows, hair sprays and nail polishes. It has also been used as a replacement for lead in shot, bullets and less-lethal riot gun ammunition. Main use is in pharmaceuticals and low melting point alloys used as fuses.

Sources

It can be found free in nature and in minerals like bismuthine (Bi2O3) and in bismuth ochre (Bi2O3)