Gadolini

Gadolini (Gd)

element with the atomic number of 64
Atomic Number64
Atomic Weight157.25
Rhif màs158
Group
Period6
Blockf
Proton64 p+
Niwtron94 n0
Electron64 e-
Animated Bohr model of Gd (Gadolini)

Nodwedd Ffisegol

Atomic Radius
180 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
169 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
93.8 pm
Crystal Radius
107.8 pm
Van der Waals radius
234 pm
density
7.9 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Gadolini0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Nodwedd Gemegol

egni
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
6.149796 eV/particle
ionization energy of Gd (Gadolini)
enthalpy of vaporization
398 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
standard enthalpy of formation
397.5 kJ/mol
Electron
plisgyn yr electron2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Bohr model: Gd (Gadolini)
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Gd (Gadolini)
trefn yr electronnau[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f7 5d1 6s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Gd (Gadolini)
Orbital Diagram of Gd (Gadolini)
Cyflwr ocsidiad0, 1, 2, 3
Electronegatifedd
1.2
Electrophilicity Index
cyflwr sylfaenol mater
cyflwr materSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3,546.15 K
Melting Point
1,586.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
lliw
Silver
appearancesilvery white
Mynegrif plygiant
nodwedd ffisegol gwrthrych
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0.0000094 1/K
molar heat capacity
37.03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.236 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
dargludedd trydanol
0.77 MS/m
Gwrthedd
0.0000013 m Ω
superconductivity
magnetism
typeferromagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
292 K
Néel temperature
strwythur
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3.64 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
nodwedd mecanyddol deunyddiau
hardness
bulk modulus
38 GPa
shear modulus
22 GPa
Young's modulus
55 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0.26
speed of sound
2,680 m/s
classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number26
Mendeleev Number27
Pettifor Number27
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
158 ± 20 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
49,000
Neutron Mass Absorption
7.3
quantum number9D2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Gadolinium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes35
Natural Isotopes7
Isotopic Composition15824.84%15824.84%16021.86%16021.86%15620.47%15620.47%15514.80%15514.80%15715.65%15715.65%1542.18%1542.18%1520.20%1520.20%

133Gd

Rhif màs133
neutron number69
relative atomic mass
132.961288 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

134Gd

Rhif màs134
neutron number70
relative atomic mass
133.955416 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

135Gd

Rhif màs135
neutron number71
relative atomic mass
134.952496 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
1.1 ± 0.2 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1996
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2%

136Gd

Rhif màs136
neutron number72
relative atomic mass
135.9473 ± 0.00032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod2000
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

137Gd

Rhif màs137
neutron number73
relative atomic mass
136.94502 ± 0.00032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
2.2 ± 0.2 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1999
parity

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

138Gd

Rhif màs138
neutron number74
relative atomic mass
137.940247 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
4.7 ± 0.9 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

139Gd

Rhif màs139
neutron number75
relative atomic mass
138.93813 ± 0.00021 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
5.7 ± 0.3 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1983
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

140Gd

Rhif màs140
neutron number76
relative atomic mass
139.933674 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
15.8 ± 0.4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)67%
ϵ (electron capture)33%

141Gd

Rhif màs141
neutron number77
relative atomic mass
140.932126 ± 0.000021213 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
14 ± 4 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.03%

142Gd

Rhif màs142
neutron number78
relative atomic mass
141.928116 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
70.2 ± 0.6 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)52%
e+ (positron emission)48%

143Gd

Rhif màs143
neutron number79
relative atomic mass
142.926750678 ± 0.000215032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
39 ± 2 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1975
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)

144Gd

Rhif màs144
neutron number80
relative atomic mass
143.922963 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
4.47 ± 0.06 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

145Gd

Rhif màs145
neutron number81
relative atomic mass
144.921710051 ± 0.000021165 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
23 ± 0.4 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1959
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

146Gd

Rhif màs146
neutron number82
relative atomic mass
145.918318513 ± 0.000004376 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
48.27 ± 0.09 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1957
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

147Gd

Rhif màs147
neutron number83
relative atomic mass
146.919101014 ± 0.000002025 Da
g-factor
0.29142857142857 ± 0.025714285714286
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
38.06 ± 0.12 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1957
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

148Gd

Rhif màs148
neutron number84
relative atomic mass
147.918121414 ± 0.000001566 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
71.3 ± 1 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

149Gd

Rhif màs149
neutron number85
relative atomic mass
148.919347666 ± 0.000003553 Da
g-factor
0.25142857142857 ± 0.011428571428571
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
9.28 ± 0.1 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1951
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)4.3%

150Gd

Rhif màs150
neutron number86
relative atomic mass
149.918663949 ± 0.0000065 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
1.79 ± 0.08 My
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

151Gd

Rhif màs151
neutron number87
relative atomic mass
150.920354922 ± 0.000003212 Da
g-factor
0.22 ± 0.017142857142857
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
123.9 ± 1 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%
α (α emission)1.1%

152Gd

Rhif màs152
neutron number88
relative atomic mass
151.919798414 ± 0.000001081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.2 ± 0.03
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
108 ± 8 Ty
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1938
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

153Gd

Rhif màs153
neutron number89
relative atomic mass
152.921756945 ± 0.000001075 Da
g-factor
0.25333333333333 ± 0.053333333333333
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
240.6 ± 0.7 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1947
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

154Gd

Rhif màs154
neutron number90
relative atomic mass
153.920872974 ± 0.000001066 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
2.18 ± 0.02
Dadfeilio ymbelydrolstable isotope
Hanner oesNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1938
parity+

155Gd

Rhif màs155
neutron number91
relative atomic mass
154.922629356 ± 0.000001055 Da
g-factor
-0.17273333333333 ± 0.00026666666666667
natural abundance
14.8 ± 0.09
Dadfeilio ymbelydrolstable isotope
Hanner oesNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1.27 ± 0.03
dyddiad darganfod1933
parity-

156Gd

Rhif màs156
neutron number92
relative atomic mass
155.92213012 ± 0.000001054 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20.47 ± 0.03
Dadfeilio ymbelydrolstable isotope
Hanner oesNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1933
parity+

157Gd

Rhif màs157
neutron number93
relative atomic mass
156.923967424 ± 0.000001048 Da
g-factor
-0.22653333333333 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
15.65 ± 0.04
Dadfeilio ymbelydrolstable isotope
Hanner oesNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1.35 ± 0.03
dyddiad darganfod1933
parity-

158Gd

Rhif màs158
neutron number94
relative atomic mass
157.9241112 ± 0.000001048 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
24.84 ± 0.08
Dadfeilio ymbelydrolstable isotope
Hanner oesNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1933
parity+

159Gd

Rhif màs159
neutron number95
relative atomic mass
158.926395822 ± 0.000001051 Da
g-factor
-0.29333333333333 ± 0.02
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
18.479 ± 0.004 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

160Gd

Rhif màs160
neutron number96
relative atomic mass
159.927061202 ± 0.000001206 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
21.86 ± 0.03
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)

161Gd

Rhif màs161
neutron number97
relative atomic mass
160.929676267 ± 0.000001614 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
3.646 ± 0.003 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

162Gd

Rhif màs162
neutron number98
relative atomic mass
161.930991812 ± 0.000004254 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
8.4 ± 0.2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1967
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

163Gd

Rhif màs163
neutron number99
relative atomic mass
162.93409664 ± 0.000000855 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
68 ± 3 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1982
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

164Gd

Rhif màs164
neutron number100
relative atomic mass
163.935916193 ± 0.000001073 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
45 ± 3 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1988
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

165Gd

Rhif màs165
neutron number101
relative atomic mass
164.93931708 ± 0.0000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
11.6 ± 1 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1998
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

166Gd

Rhif màs166
neutron number102
relative atomic mass
165.941630413 ± 0.0000017 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
5.1 ± 0.8 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

167Gd

Rhif màs167
neutron number103
relative atomic mass
166.945490012 ± 0.000005596 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
4.2 ± 0.3 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod2012
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

168Gd

Rhif màs168
neutron number104
relative atomic mass
167.948309 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
3.03 ± 0.16 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

169Gd

Rhif màs169
neutron number105
relative atomic mass
168.952882 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
750 ± 210 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod2012
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

170Gd

Rhif màs170
neutron number106
relative atomic mass
169.956146 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
420 ± 130 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod2012
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

171Gd

Rhif màs171
neutron number107
relative atomic mass
170.961127 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod2018
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

172Gd

Rhif màs172
neutron number108
relative atomic mass
171.964605 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod2018
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gadolinium

hanes

darganfyddwr neu ddyfeisiwrJean de Marignac
man darganfodSwitzerland
dyddiad darganfod1880
geirdarddiadNamed after the mineral gadolinite.
ynganiadGAD-eh-LIN-i-em (Saesneg)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
6.2 mg/kg
natural abundance (cefnfor)
0.0000007 mg/L
natural abundance (corff dynol)
natural abundance (Awyrfaen)
0.000023 %
natural abundance (Haul)
0.0000002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.2565
2p4.2946
2s16.783
3d13.723
3p19.8508
3s20.2903
4d34.3664
4f38.9864
4p31.3532
4s30.556
5p47.236
5s45.118
6s55.7854