Gadolinioa

Gadolinioa (Gd)

Zenbaki atomikoa 64 duen elementu kimikoa. Lur arraroen multzoko metala da, lantanidoen seriekoa. Magnetismo handia du, batez ere tenperatura baxuetan, eta supereroankortasun-ezaugarriak ditu
Atomic Number64
Atomic Weight157.25
masa-zenbaki158
Group
Period6
Blockf
protoi64 p+
neutroi94 n0
elektroi64 e-
Animated Bohrren eredu atomikoa of Gd (Gadolinioa)

Propietate Fisiko

Erradio Atomiko
180 pm
bolumen molar
Erradio Kobalente
169 pm
Metallic Radius
Erradio ioniko
93,8 pm
Crystal Radius
107,8 pm
Van der Waalsen erradio
234 pm
dentsitatea
7,9 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Gadolinioa0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240pmErradio AtomikoErradio KobalenteMetallic RadiusVan der Waalsen erradio

Magnitude Fisiko

energia
proton affinity
Afinitate elektroniko
ionizazio energia
6,149796 eV/particle
ionizazio energia of Gd (Gadolinioa)
Irakite-entalpia
398 kJ/mol
urtze-entalpia
formazio entalpia estandarra
397,5 kJ/mol
elektroi
elektroi geruza2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Bohrren eredu atomikoa: Gd (Gadolinioa)
balentzia-elektroi2
Lewis egitura: Gd (Gadolinioa)
electron configuration[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f7 5d1 6s2
Enhanced Bohrren eredu atomikoa of Gd (Gadolinioa)
Orbital Diagram of Gd (Gadolinioa)
Oxidazio-egoera0, 1, 2, 3
Elektronegatibotasun
1.2
Electrophilicity Index
materiaren funtsezko egoera
materiaren egoeraSolid
materiaren egoera gaseoso
Boiling Point
3.546,15 K
Melting Point
1.586,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
Puntu hirukoitz
appearance
kolore
Silver
appearancesilvery white
errefrakzio-indize
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
Bero-dilatazio
0,0000094 1/K
molar heat capacity
37,03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,236 J/(g⋅K)
indize adiabatiko
electrical properties
typeConductor
Eroankortasun elektriko
0,77 MS/m
Erresistibitate elektriko
0,0000013 m Ω
Supereroankortasun
Magnetismo
typeferromagnetic
suszeptibilitate magnetiko (Mass)
suszeptibilitate magnetiko (Molar)
suszeptibilitate magnetiko (Volume)
magnetic ordering
Curieren tenperatura
292 K
Néel temperature
egitura
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3,64 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
materialen propietate mekaniko
Gogortasun
konprimagarritasun-modulu
38 GPa
Zizaila modulua
22 GPa
Youngen modulu
55 GPa
Poissonen modulu
0,26
Soinuaren lastertasun
2.680 m/s
classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number26
Mendeleev Number27
Pettifor Number27
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

beste batzuk

Gas Basicity
polarizability
158 ± 20 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
49.000
Neutron Mass Absorption
7,3
zenbaki kuantiko9D2
talde espazial194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Gadolinium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes35
Natural Isotopes7
Isotopic Composition15824.84%15824.84%16021.86%16021.86%15620.47%15620.47%15514.80%15514.80%15715.65%15715.65%1542.18%1542.18%1520.20%1520.20%

133Gd

masa-zenbaki133
neutron number69
atomo-masa erlatibo
132,961288 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

134Gd

masa-zenbaki134
neutron number70
atomo-masa erlatibo
133,955416 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

135Gd

masa-zenbaki135
neutron number71
atomo-masa erlatibo
134,952496 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
1,1 ± 0,2 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1996
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2%

136Gd

masa-zenbaki136
neutron number72
atomo-masa erlatibo
135,9473 ± 0,00032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data2000
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

137Gd

masa-zenbaki137
neutron number73
atomo-masa erlatibo
136,94502 ± 0,00032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
2,2 ± 0,2 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1999
parity

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

138Gd

masa-zenbaki138
neutron number74
atomo-masa erlatibo
137,940247 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
4,7 ± 0,9 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

139Gd

masa-zenbaki139
neutron number75
atomo-masa erlatibo
138,93813 ± 0,00021 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
5,7 ± 0,3 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1983
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

140Gd

masa-zenbaki140
neutron number76
atomo-masa erlatibo
139,933674 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
15,8 ± 0,4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)67%
ϵ (electron capture)33%

141Gd

masa-zenbaki141
neutron number77
atomo-masa erlatibo
140,932126 ± 0,000021213 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
14 ± 4 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.03%

142Gd

masa-zenbaki142
neutron number78
atomo-masa erlatibo
141,928116 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
70,2 ± 0,6 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)52%
e+ (positron emission)48%

143Gd

masa-zenbaki143
neutron number79
atomo-masa erlatibo
142,926750678 ± 0,000215032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
39 ± 2 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1975
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)

144Gd

masa-zenbaki144
neutron number80
atomo-masa erlatibo
143,922963 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
4,47 ± 0,06 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

145Gd

masa-zenbaki145
neutron number81
atomo-masa erlatibo
144,921710051 ± 0,000021165 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
23 ± 0,4 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1959
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

146Gd

masa-zenbaki146
neutron number82
atomo-masa erlatibo
145,918318513 ± 0,000004376 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
48,27 ± 0,09 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1957
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

147Gd

masa-zenbaki147
neutron number83
atomo-masa erlatibo
146,919101014 ± 0,000002025 Da
g-factor
0,29142857142857 ± 0,025714285714286
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
38,06 ± 0,12 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1957
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

148Gd

masa-zenbaki148
neutron number84
atomo-masa erlatibo
147,918121414 ± 0,000001566 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
71,3 ± 1 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

149Gd

masa-zenbaki149
neutron number85
atomo-masa erlatibo
148,919347666 ± 0,000003553 Da
g-factor
0,25142857142857 ± 0,011428571428571
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
9,28 ± 0,1 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1951
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)4.3%

150Gd

masa-zenbaki150
neutron number86
atomo-masa erlatibo
149,918663949 ± 0,0000065 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
1,79 ± 0,08 My
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

151Gd

masa-zenbaki151
neutron number87
atomo-masa erlatibo
150,920354922 ± 0,000003212 Da
g-factor
0,22 ± 0,017142857142857
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
123,9 ± 1 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%
α (α emission)1.1%

152Gd

masa-zenbaki152
neutron number88
atomo-masa erlatibo
151,919798414 ± 0,000001081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0,2 ± 0,03
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
108 ± 8 Ty
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1938
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

153Gd

masa-zenbaki153
neutron number89
atomo-masa erlatibo
152,921756945 ± 0,000001075 Da
g-factor
0,25333333333333 ± 0,053333333333333
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
240,6 ± 0,7 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1947
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

154Gd

masa-zenbaki154
neutron number90
atomo-masa erlatibo
153,920872974 ± 0,000001066 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
2,18 ± 0,02
desintegrazio erradioaktiboisotopo egonkor
Semidesintegrazio-periodoNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1938
parity+

155Gd

masa-zenbaki155
neutron number91
atomo-masa erlatibo
154,922629356 ± 0,000001055 Da
g-factor
−0,17273333333333 ± 0,00026666666666667
natural abundance
14,8 ± 0,09
desintegrazio erradioaktiboisotopo egonkor
Semidesintegrazio-periodoNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1,27 ± 0,03
aurkikuntza-data1933
parity-

156Gd

masa-zenbaki156
neutron number92
atomo-masa erlatibo
155,92213012 ± 0,000001054 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20,47 ± 0,03
desintegrazio erradioaktiboisotopo egonkor
Semidesintegrazio-periodoNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1933
parity+

157Gd

masa-zenbaki157
neutron number93
atomo-masa erlatibo
156,923967424 ± 0,000001048 Da
g-factor
−0,22653333333333 ± 0,0004
natural abundance
15,65 ± 0,04
desintegrazio erradioaktiboisotopo egonkor
Semidesintegrazio-periodoNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1,35 ± 0,03
aurkikuntza-data1933
parity-

158Gd

masa-zenbaki158
neutron number94
atomo-masa erlatibo
157,9241112 ± 0,000001048 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
24,84 ± 0,08
desintegrazio erradioaktiboisotopo egonkor
Semidesintegrazio-periodoNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1933
parity+

159Gd

masa-zenbaki159
neutron number95
atomo-masa erlatibo
158,926395822 ± 0,000001051 Da
g-factor
−0,29333333333333 ± 0,02
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
18,479 ± 0,004 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

160Gd

masa-zenbaki160
neutron number96
atomo-masa erlatibo
159,927061202 ± 0,000001206 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
21,86 ± 0,03
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)

161Gd

masa-zenbaki161
neutron number97
atomo-masa erlatibo
160,929676267 ± 0,000001614 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
3,646 ± 0,003 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

162Gd

masa-zenbaki162
neutron number98
atomo-masa erlatibo
161,930991812 ± 0,000004254 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
8,4 ± 0,2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1967
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

163Gd

masa-zenbaki163
neutron number99
atomo-masa erlatibo
162,93409664 ± 0,000000855 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
68 ± 3 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data1982
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

164Gd

masa-zenbaki164
neutron number100
atomo-masa erlatibo
163,935916193 ± 0,000001073 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
45 ± 3 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1988
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

165Gd

masa-zenbaki165
neutron number101
atomo-masa erlatibo
164,93931708 ± 0,0000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
11,6 ± 1 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1998
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

166Gd

masa-zenbaki166
neutron number102
atomo-masa erlatibo
165,941630413 ± 0,0000017 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
5,1 ± 0,8 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

167Gd

masa-zenbaki167
neutron number103
atomo-masa erlatibo
166,945490012 ± 0,000005596 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
4,2 ± 0,3 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data2012
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

168Gd

masa-zenbaki168
neutron number104
atomo-masa erlatibo
167,948309 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
3,03 ± 0,16 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

169Gd

masa-zenbaki169
neutron number105
atomo-masa erlatibo
168,952882 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
750 ± 210 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data2012
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

170Gd

masa-zenbaki170
neutron number106
atomo-masa erlatibo
169,956146 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
420 ± 130 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data2012
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

171Gd

masa-zenbaki171
neutron number107
atomo-masa erlatibo
170,961127 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
aurkikuntza-data2018
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

172Gd

masa-zenbaki172
neutron number108
atomo-masa erlatibo
171,964605 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
desintegrazio erradioaktibo☢️ radioactive element
Semidesintegrazio-periodo
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
aurkikuntza-data2018
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gadolinium

historia

aurkitzailea edo asmatzaileaJean de Marignac
aurkikuntzaren lekuaSwitzerland
aurkikuntza-data1880
etimologiaNamed after the mineral gadolinite.
pronunciationGAD-eh-LIN-i-em (ingelesa)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
6,2 mg/kg
natural abundance (ozeano)
0,0000007 mg/L
natural abundance (gizakiaren gorputza)
natural abundance (Meteoroide)
0,000023 %
natural abundance (Eguzkia)
0,0000002 %
Abundance in Universe
0,0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.2565
2p4.2946
2s16.783
3d13.723
3p19.8508
3s20.2903
4d34.3664
4f38.9864
4p31.3532
4s30.556
5p47.236
5s45.118
6s55.7854