Gadolinium

Gadolinium (Gd)

element with the atomic number of 64
Atomic Number64
Atomic Weight157.25
Nombor jisim158
Group
Period6
Blockf
proton64 p+
neutron94 n0
Elektron64 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Gd (Gadolinium)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
180 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
169 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
93.8 pm
Crystal Radius
107.8 pm
Jejari van der Waals
234 pm
ketumpatan
7.9 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Gadolinium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
Pertalian elektron
ionization energy
6.149796 eV/particle
ionization energy of Gd (Gadolinium)
Entalpi pengewapan
398 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
standard enthalpy of formation
397.5 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Model Bohr: Gd (Gadolinium)
Elektron valens2
Teori ion Lewis: Gd (Gadolinium)
tatarajah elektron[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f7 5d1 6s2
Enhanced Model Bohr of Gd (Gadolinium)
Orbital Diagram of Gd (Gadolinium)
Keadaan pengoksidaan0, 1, 2, 3
Keelektronegatifan
1.2
Electrophilicity Index
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3,546.15 K
Melting Point
1,586.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
rupa
warna
Silver
rupasilvery white
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
Pengembangan terma
0.0000094 1/K
molar heat capacity
37.03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.236 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
0.77 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.0000013 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
kemagnetan
typeferromagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
292 K
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3.64 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
Modulus pukal
38 GPa
shear modulus
22 GPa
Young's modulus
55 GPa
Nisbah Poisson
0.26
Kelajuan bunyi
2,680 m/s
pengelasan
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number26
Mendeleev Number27
Pettifor Number27
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
158 ± 20 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
49,000
Neutron Mass Absorption
7.3
Nombor kuantum9D2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Gadolinium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes35
Natural Isotopes7
Isotopic Composition15824.84%15824.84%16021.86%16021.86%15620.47%15620.47%15514.80%15514.80%15715.65%15715.65%1542.18%1542.18%1520.20%1520.20%

133Gd

Nombor jisim133
nombor neutron69
jisim atom relatif
132.961288 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

134Gd

Nombor jisim134
nombor neutron70
jisim atom relatif
133.955416 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

135Gd

Nombor jisim135
nombor neutron71
jisim atom relatif
134.952496 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.1 ± 0.2 s
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1996
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2%

136Gd

Nombor jisim136
nombor neutron72
jisim atom relatif
135.9473 ± 0.00032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2000
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

137Gd

Nombor jisim137
nombor neutron73
jisim atom relatif
136.94502 ± 0.00032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.2 ± 0.2 s
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1999
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

138Gd

Nombor jisim138
nombor neutron74
jisim atom relatif
137.940247 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.7 ± 0.9 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1985
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

139Gd

Nombor jisim139
nombor neutron75
jisim atom relatif
138.93813 ± 0.00021 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
5.7 ± 0.3 s
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1983
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

140Gd

Nombor jisim140
nombor neutron76
jisim atom relatif
139.933674 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
15.8 ± 0.4 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1985
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)67%
ϵ (electron capture)33%

141Gd

Nombor jisim141
nombor neutron77
jisim atom relatif
140.932126 ± 0.000021213 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
14 ± 4 s
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1986
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.03%

142Gd

Nombor jisim142
nombor neutron78
jisim atom relatif
141.928116 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
70.2 ± 0.6 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1986
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)52%
e+ (positron emission)48%

143Gd

Nombor jisim143
nombor neutron79
jisim atom relatif
142.926750678 ± 0.000215032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
39 ± 2 s
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1975
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)

144Gd

Nombor jisim144
nombor neutron80
jisim atom relatif
143.922963 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.47 ± 0.06 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1968
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

145Gd

Nombor jisim145
nombor neutron81
jisim atom relatif
144.921710051 ± 0.000021165 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
23 ± 0.4 m
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1959
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

146Gd

Nombor jisim146
nombor neutron82
jisim atom relatif
145.918318513 ± 0.000004376 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
48.27 ± 0.09 d
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1957
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

147Gd

Nombor jisim147
nombor neutron83
jisim atom relatif
146.919101014 ± 0.000002025 Da
g-factor
0.29142857142857 ± 0.025714285714286
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
38.06 ± 0.12 h
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1957
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

148Gd

Nombor jisim148
nombor neutron84
jisim atom relatif
147.918121414 ± 0.000001566 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
71.3 ± 1 y
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1953
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

149Gd

Nombor jisim149
nombor neutron85
jisim atom relatif
148.919347666 ± 0.000003553 Da
g-factor
0.25142857142857 ± 0.011428571428571
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
9.28 ± 0.1 d
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1951
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)4.3%

150Gd

Nombor jisim150
nombor neutron86
jisim atom relatif
149.918663949 ± 0.0000065 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.79 ± 0.08 My
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1953
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

151Gd

Nombor jisim151
nombor neutron87
jisim atom relatif
150.920354922 ± 0.000003212 Da
g-factor
0.22 ± 0.017142857142857
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
123.9 ± 1 d
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1950
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%
α (α emission)1.1%

152Gd

Nombor jisim152
nombor neutron88
jisim atom relatif
151.919798414 ± 0.000001081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.2 ± 0.03
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
108 ± 8 Ty
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1938
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

153Gd

Nombor jisim153
nombor neutron89
jisim atom relatif
152.921756945 ± 0.000001075 Da
g-factor
0.25333333333333 ± 0.053333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
240.6 ± 0.7 d
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1947
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

154Gd

Nombor jisim154
nombor neutron90
jisim atom relatif
153.920872974 ± 0.000001066 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
2.18 ± 0.02
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1938
parity+

155Gd

Nombor jisim155
nombor neutron91
jisim atom relatif
154.922629356 ± 0.000001055 Da
g-factor
-0.17273333333333 ± 0.00026666666666667
natural abundance
14.8 ± 0.09
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1.27 ± 0.03
tarikh penemuan1933
parity-

156Gd

Nombor jisim156
nombor neutron92
jisim atom relatif
155.92213012 ± 0.000001054 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20.47 ± 0.03
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1933
parity+

157Gd

Nombor jisim157
nombor neutron93
jisim atom relatif
156.923967424 ± 0.000001048 Da
g-factor
-0.22653333333333 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
15.65 ± 0.04
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1.35 ± 0.03
tarikh penemuan1933
parity-

158Gd

Nombor jisim158
nombor neutron94
jisim atom relatif
157.9241112 ± 0.000001048 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
24.84 ± 0.08
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1933
parity+

159Gd

Nombor jisim159
nombor neutron95
jisim atom relatif
158.926395822 ± 0.000001051 Da
g-factor
-0.29333333333333 ± 0.02
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
18.479 ± 0.004 h
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1949
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

160Gd

Nombor jisim160
nombor neutron96
jisim atom relatif
159.927061202 ± 0.000001206 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
21.86 ± 0.03
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1933
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
(double β decay)

161Gd

Nombor jisim161
nombor neutron97
jisim atom relatif
160.929676267 ± 0.000001614 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.646 ± 0.003 m
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1949
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

162Gd

Nombor jisim162
nombor neutron98
jisim atom relatif
161.930991812 ± 0.000004254 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8.4 ± 0.2 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1967
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

163Gd

Nombor jisim163
nombor neutron99
jisim atom relatif
162.93409664 ± 0.000000855 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
68 ± 3 s
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1982
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

164Gd

Nombor jisim164
nombor neutron100
jisim atom relatif
163.935916193 ± 0.000001073 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
45 ± 3 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1988
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

165Gd

Nombor jisim165
nombor neutron101
jisim atom relatif
164.93931708 ± 0.0000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
11.6 ± 1 s
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1998
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

166Gd

Nombor jisim166
nombor neutron102
jisim atom relatif
165.941630413 ± 0.0000017 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
5.1 ± 0.8 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2005
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

167Gd

Nombor jisim167
nombor neutron103
jisim atom relatif
166.945490012 ± 0.000005596 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.2 ± 0.3 s
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2012
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

168Gd

Nombor jisim168
nombor neutron104
jisim atom relatif
167.948309 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.03 ± 0.16 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1985
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

169Gd

Nombor jisim169
nombor neutron105
jisim atom relatif
168.952882 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
750 ± 210 ms
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2012
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

170Gd

Nombor jisim170
nombor neutron106
jisim atom relatif
169.956146 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
420 ± 130 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2012
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

171Gd

Nombor jisim171
nombor neutron107
jisim atom relatif
170.961127 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2018
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

172Gd

Nombor jisim172
nombor neutron108
jisim atom relatif
171.964605 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2018
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gadolinium

sejarah

penemu atau perekaJean de Marignac
tempat penemuanSwitzerland
tarikh penemuan1880
EtimologiNamed after the mineral gadolinite.
sebutanGAD-eh-LIN-i-em (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
6.2 mg/kg
natural abundance (lautan)
0.0000007 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0.000023 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.0000002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.2565
2p4.2946
2s16.783
3d13.723
3p19.8508
3s20.2903
4d34.3664
4f38.9864
4p31.3532
4s30.556
5p47.236
5s45.118
6s55.7854