Gadolinju[m]

Gadolinju[m] (Gd)

element with the atomic number of 64
Atomic Number64
Atomic Weight157.25
mass number158
Group
Period6
Blockf
proton64 p+
neutron94 n0
elettron64 e-
Animated Bohr model of Gd (Gadolinju[m])

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
180 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
169 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
93.8 pm
Crystal Radius
107.8 pm
Van der Waals radius
234 pm
densità
7.9 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Gadolinju[m]0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

enerġija
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
6.149796 eV/particle
ionization energy of Gd (Gadolinju[m])
enthalpy of vaporization
398 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
standard enthalpy of formation
397.5 kJ/mol
elettron
electron shell2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Bohr model: Gd (Gadolinju[m])
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Gd (Gadolinju[m])
electron configuration[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f7 5d1 6s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Gd (Gadolinju[m])
Orbital Diagram of Gd (Gadolinju[m])
oxidation number0, 1, 2, 3
electronegativity
1.2
Electrophilicity Index
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3,546.15 K
Melting Point
1,586.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
kulur
Silver
appearancesilvery white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0.0000094 1/K
molar heat capacity
37.03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.236 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
0.77 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.0000013 m Ω
superconductivity
magnetism
typeferromagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
292 K
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3.64 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
bulk modulus
38 GPa
shear modulus
22 GPa
Young's modulus
55 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0.26
speed of sound
2,680 m/s
classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number26
Mendeleev Number27
Pettifor Number27
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
158 ± 20 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
49,000
Neutron Mass Absorption
7.3
quantum number9D2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Gadolinium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes35
Natural Isotopes7
Isotopic Composition15824.84%15824.84%16021.86%16021.86%15620.47%15620.47%15514.80%15514.80%15715.65%15715.65%1542.18%1542.18%1520.20%1520.20%

133Gd

mass number133
neutron number69
relative atomic mass
132.961288 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

134Gd

mass number134
neutron number70
relative atomic mass
133.955416 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

135Gd

mass number135
neutron number71
relative atomic mass
134.952496 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.1 ± 0.2 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1996
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2%

136Gd

mass number136
neutron number72
relative atomic mass
135.9473 ± 0.00032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention2000
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

137Gd

mass number137
neutron number73
relative atomic mass
136.94502 ± 0.00032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.2 ± 0.2 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1999
parity

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

138Gd

mass number138
neutron number74
relative atomic mass
137.940247 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.7 ± 0.9 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

139Gd

mass number139
neutron number75
relative atomic mass
138.93813 ± 0.00021 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
5.7 ± 0.3 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1983
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

140Gd

mass number140
neutron number76
relative atomic mass
139.933674 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
15.8 ± 0.4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)67%
ϵ (electron capture)33%

141Gd

mass number141
neutron number77
relative atomic mass
140.932126 ± 0.000021213 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
14 ± 4 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.03%

142Gd

mass number142
neutron number78
relative atomic mass
141.928116 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
70.2 ± 0.6 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)52%
e+ (positron emission)48%

143Gd

mass number143
neutron number79
relative atomic mass
142.926750678 ± 0.000215032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
39 ± 2 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1975
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)

144Gd

mass number144
neutron number80
relative atomic mass
143.922963 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.47 ± 0.06 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

145Gd

mass number145
neutron number81
relative atomic mass
144.921710051 ± 0.000021165 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
23 ± 0.4 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1959
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

146Gd

mass number146
neutron number82
relative atomic mass
145.918318513 ± 0.000004376 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
48.27 ± 0.09 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1957
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

147Gd

mass number147
neutron number83
relative atomic mass
146.919101014 ± 0.000002025 Da
g-factor
0.29142857142857 ± 0.025714285714286
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
38.06 ± 0.12 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1957
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

148Gd

mass number148
neutron number84
relative atomic mass
147.918121414 ± 0.000001566 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
71.3 ± 1 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

149Gd

mass number149
neutron number85
relative atomic mass
148.919347666 ± 0.000003553 Da
g-factor
0.25142857142857 ± 0.011428571428571
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9.28 ± 0.1 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1951
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)4.3%

150Gd

mass number150
neutron number86
relative atomic mass
149.918663949 ± 0.0000065 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.79 ± 0.08 My
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

151Gd

mass number151
neutron number87
relative atomic mass
150.920354922 ± 0.000003212 Da
g-factor
0.22 ± 0.017142857142857
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
123.9 ± 1 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%
α (α emission)1.1%

152Gd

mass number152
neutron number88
relative atomic mass
151.919798414 ± 0.000001081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.2 ± 0.03
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
108 ± 8 Ty
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1938
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

153Gd

mass number153
neutron number89
relative atomic mass
152.921756945 ± 0.000001075 Da
g-factor
0.25333333333333 ± 0.053333333333333
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
240.6 ± 0.7 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1947
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

154Gd

mass number154
neutron number90
relative atomic mass
153.920872974 ± 0.000001066 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
2.18 ± 0.02
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1938
parity+

155Gd

mass number155
neutron number91
relative atomic mass
154.922629356 ± 0.000001055 Da
g-factor
-0.17273333333333 ± 0.00026666666666667
natural abundance
14.8 ± 0.09
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1.27 ± 0.03
time of discovery or invention1933
parity-

156Gd

mass number156
neutron number92
relative atomic mass
155.92213012 ± 0.000001054 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20.47 ± 0.03
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1933
parity+

157Gd

mass number157
neutron number93
relative atomic mass
156.923967424 ± 0.000001048 Da
g-factor
-0.22653333333333 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
15.65 ± 0.04
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1.35 ± 0.03
time of discovery or invention1933
parity-

158Gd

mass number158
neutron number94
relative atomic mass
157.9241112 ± 0.000001048 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
24.84 ± 0.08
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1933
parity+

159Gd

mass number159
neutron number95
relative atomic mass
158.926395822 ± 0.000001051 Da
g-factor
-0.29333333333333 ± 0.02
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18.479 ± 0.004 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

160Gd

mass number160
neutron number96
relative atomic mass
159.927061202 ± 0.000001206 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
21.86 ± 0.03
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)

161Gd

mass number161
neutron number97
relative atomic mass
160.929676267 ± 0.000001614 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.646 ± 0.003 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

162Gd

mass number162
neutron number98
relative atomic mass
161.930991812 ± 0.000004254 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
8.4 ± 0.2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1967
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

163Gd

mass number163
neutron number99
relative atomic mass
162.93409664 ± 0.000000855 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
68 ± 3 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1982
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

164Gd

mass number164
neutron number100
relative atomic mass
163.935916193 ± 0.000001073 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
45 ± 3 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1988
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

165Gd

mass number165
neutron number101
relative atomic mass
164.93931708 ± 0.0000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
11.6 ± 1 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1998
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

166Gd

mass number166
neutron number102
relative atomic mass
165.941630413 ± 0.0000017 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
5.1 ± 0.8 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

167Gd

mass number167
neutron number103
relative atomic mass
166.945490012 ± 0.000005596 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.2 ± 0.3 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention2012
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

168Gd

mass number168
neutron number104
relative atomic mass
167.948309 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.03 ± 0.16 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

169Gd

mass number169
neutron number105
relative atomic mass
168.952882 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
750 ± 210 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention2012
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

170Gd

mass number170
neutron number106
relative atomic mass
169.956146 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
420 ± 130 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention2012
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

171Gd

mass number171
neutron number107
relative atomic mass
170.961127 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention2018
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

172Gd

mass number172
neutron number108
relative atomic mass
171.964605 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention2018
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gadolinium

storja

discoverer or inventorJean de Marignac
location of discoverySwitzerland
time of discovery or invention1880
etimoloġijaNamed after the mineral gadolinite.
pronunciationGAD-eh-LIN-i-em (Ingliż)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
6.2 mg/kg
natural abundance (ocean)
0.0000007 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0.000023 %
natural abundance (Xemx)
0.0000002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.2565
2p4.2946
2s16.783
3d13.723
3p19.8508
3s20.2903
4d34.3664
4f38.9864
4p31.3532
4s30.556
5p47.236
5s45.118
6s55.7854