Gadolini

Gadolini (Gd)

element with the atomic number of 64
Atomic Number64
Atomic Weight157.25
mass number158
Group
Period6
Blockf
protoni64 p+
nyutroni94 n0
elektroni64 e-
Animated Bohr model of Gd (Gadolini)

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
180 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
169 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
93.8 pm
Crystal Radius
107.8 pm
Van der Waals radius
234 pm
msongamano
7.9 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Gadolini0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

nishati
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
6.149796 eV/particle
ionization energy of Gd (Gadolini)
enthalpy of vaporization
398 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
standard enthalpy of formation
397.5 kJ/mol
elektroni
Mzingo elektroni2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Bohr model: Gd (Gadolini)
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Gd (Gadolini)
electron configuration[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f7 5d1 6s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Gd (Gadolini)
Orbital Diagram of Gd (Gadolini)
oxidation number0, 1, 2, 3
electronegativity
1.2
Electrophilicity Index
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3,546.15 K
Melting Point
1,586.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
Kiwango utatu
appearance
Rangi
Silver
appearancesilvery white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0.0000094 1/K
molar heat capacity
37.03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.236 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
0.77 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.0000013 m Ω
superconductivity
Uga sumaku
typeferromagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
292 K
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3.64 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
bulk modulus
38 GPa
shear modulus
22 GPa
Young's modulus
55 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0.26
speed of sound
2,680 m/s
classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number26
Mendeleev Number27
Pettifor Number27
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
158 ± 20 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
49,000
Neutron Mass Absorption
7.3
quantum number9D2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Gadolinium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes35
Natural Isotopes7
Isotopic Composition15824.84%15824.84%16021.86%16021.86%15620.47%15620.47%15514.80%15514.80%15715.65%15715.65%1542.18%1542.18%1520.20%1520.20%

133Gd

mass number133
neutron number69
relative atomic mass
132.961288 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

134Gd

mass number134
neutron number70
relative atomic mass
133.955416 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

135Gd

mass number135
neutron number71
relative atomic mass
134.952496 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
1.1 ± 0.2 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1996
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2%

136Gd

mass number136
neutron number72
relative atomic mass
135.9473 ± 0.00032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi2000
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

137Gd

mass number137
neutron number73
relative atomic mass
136.94502 ± 0.00032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
2.2 ± 0.2 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1999
parity

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

138Gd

mass number138
neutron number74
relative atomic mass
137.940247 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
4.7 ± 0.9 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1985
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

139Gd

mass number139
neutron number75
relative atomic mass
138.93813 ± 0.00021 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
5.7 ± 0.3 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1983
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

140Gd

mass number140
neutron number76
relative atomic mass
139.933674 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
15.8 ± 0.4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1985
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)67%
ϵ (electron capture)33%

141Gd

mass number141
neutron number77
relative atomic mass
140.932126 ± 0.000021213 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
14 ± 4 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1986
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.03%

142Gd

mass number142
neutron number78
relative atomic mass
141.928116 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
70.2 ± 0.6 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1986
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)52%
e+ (positron emission)48%

143Gd

mass number143
neutron number79
relative atomic mass
142.926750678 ± 0.000215032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
39 ± 2 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1975
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)

144Gd

mass number144
neutron number80
relative atomic mass
143.922963 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
4.47 ± 0.06 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1968
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

145Gd

mass number145
neutron number81
relative atomic mass
144.921710051 ± 0.000021165 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
23 ± 0.4 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1959
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

146Gd

mass number146
neutron number82
relative atomic mass
145.918318513 ± 0.000004376 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
48.27 ± 0.09 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1957
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

147Gd

mass number147
neutron number83
relative atomic mass
146.919101014 ± 0.000002025 Da
g-factor
0.29142857142857 ± 0.025714285714286
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
38.06 ± 0.12 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1957
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

148Gd

mass number148
neutron number84
relative atomic mass
147.918121414 ± 0.000001566 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
71.3 ± 1 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1953
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

149Gd

mass number149
neutron number85
relative atomic mass
148.919347666 ± 0.000003553 Da
g-factor
0.25142857142857 ± 0.011428571428571
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
9.28 ± 0.1 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1951
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)4.3%

150Gd

mass number150
neutron number86
relative atomic mass
149.918663949 ± 0.0000065 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
1.79 ± 0.08 My
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1953
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

151Gd

mass number151
neutron number87
relative atomic mass
150.920354922 ± 0.000003212 Da
g-factor
0.22 ± 0.017142857142857
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
123.9 ± 1 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1950
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%
α (α emission)1.1%

152Gd

mass number152
neutron number88
relative atomic mass
151.919798414 ± 0.000001081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.2 ± 0.03
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
108 ± 8 Ty
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1938
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

153Gd

mass number153
neutron number89
relative atomic mass
152.921756945 ± 0.000001075 Da
g-factor
0.25333333333333 ± 0.053333333333333
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
240.6 ± 0.7 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1947
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

154Gd

mass number154
neutron number90
relative atomic mass
153.920872974 ± 0.000001066 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
2.18 ± 0.02
Unururifustable isotope
NusumaishaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1938
parity+

155Gd

mass number155
neutron number91
relative atomic mass
154.922629356 ± 0.000001055 Da
g-factor
-0.17273333333333 ± 0.00026666666666667
natural abundance
14.8 ± 0.09
Unururifustable isotope
NusumaishaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1.27 ± 0.03
Uvumbuzi1933
parity-

156Gd

mass number156
neutron number92
relative atomic mass
155.92213012 ± 0.000001054 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20.47 ± 0.03
Unururifustable isotope
NusumaishaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1933
parity+

157Gd

mass number157
neutron number93
relative atomic mass
156.923967424 ± 0.000001048 Da
g-factor
-0.22653333333333 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
15.65 ± 0.04
Unururifustable isotope
NusumaishaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1.35 ± 0.03
Uvumbuzi1933
parity-

158Gd

mass number158
neutron number94
relative atomic mass
157.9241112 ± 0.000001048 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
24.84 ± 0.08
Unururifustable isotope
NusumaishaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1933
parity+

159Gd

mass number159
neutron number95
relative atomic mass
158.926395822 ± 0.000001051 Da
g-factor
-0.29333333333333 ± 0.02
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
18.479 ± 0.004 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1949
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

160Gd

mass number160
neutron number96
relative atomic mass
159.927061202 ± 0.000001206 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
21.86 ± 0.03
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1933
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
(double β decay)

161Gd

mass number161
neutron number97
relative atomic mass
160.929676267 ± 0.000001614 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
3.646 ± 0.003 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1949
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

162Gd

mass number162
neutron number98
relative atomic mass
161.930991812 ± 0.000004254 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
8.4 ± 0.2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1967
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

163Gd

mass number163
neutron number99
relative atomic mass
162.93409664 ± 0.000000855 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
68 ± 3 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1982
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

164Gd

mass number164
neutron number100
relative atomic mass
163.935916193 ± 0.000001073 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
45 ± 3 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1988
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

165Gd

mass number165
neutron number101
relative atomic mass
164.93931708 ± 0.0000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
11.6 ± 1 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1998
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

166Gd

mass number166
neutron number102
relative atomic mass
165.941630413 ± 0.0000017 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
5.1 ± 0.8 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi2005
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

167Gd

mass number167
neutron number103
relative atomic mass
166.945490012 ± 0.000005596 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
4.2 ± 0.3 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi2012
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

168Gd

mass number168
neutron number104
relative atomic mass
167.948309 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
3.03 ± 0.16 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1985
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

169Gd

mass number169
neutron number105
relative atomic mass
168.952882 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
750 ± 210 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi2012
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

170Gd

mass number170
neutron number106
relative atomic mass
169.956146 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
420 ± 130 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi2012
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

171Gd

mass number171
neutron number107
relative atomic mass
170.961127 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi2018
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

172Gd

mass number172
neutron number108
relative atomic mass
171.964605 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi2018
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gadolinium

historia

mgunduzi au mvumbuziJean de Marignac
location of discoverySwitzerland
Uvumbuzi1880
EtimolojiaNamed after the mineral gadolinite.
pronunciationGAD-eh-LIN-i-em (Kiingereza)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
6.2 mg/kg
natural abundance (Bahari)
0.0000007 mg/L
natural abundance (Mwili)
natural abundance (Kimondo)
0.000023 %
natural abundance (Jua)
0.0000002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.2565
2p4.2946
2s16.783
3d13.723
3p19.8508
3s20.2903
4d34.3664
4f38.9864
4p31.3532
4s30.556
5p47.236
5s45.118
6s55.7854