Гадолиний

Гадолиний (Gd)

element with the atomic number of 64
Atomic Number64
Atomic Weight157.25
Адади массавӣ158
Group
Period6
Blockf
proton64 p+
neutron94 n0
electron64 e-
Animated Bohr model of Gd (Гадолиний)

Хусусияти Физикӣ

Atomic Radius
180 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
169 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
93,8 pm
Crystal Radius
107,8 pm
Van der Waals radius
234 pm
зичӣ
7,9 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Гадолиний0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

энергия
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
6,149796 eV/particle
ionization energy of Gd (Гадолиний)
enthalpy of vaporization
398 kJ/mol
гармои гудозиш
standard enthalpy of formation
397,5 kJ/mol
electron
Абри электронӣ2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Bohr model: Gd (Гадолиний)
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Gd (Гадолиний)
electron configuration[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f7 5d1 6s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Gd (Гадолиний)
Orbital Diagram of Gd (Гадолиний)
oxidation number0, 1, 2, 3
electronegativity
1.2
Electrophilicity Index
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3 546,15 K
Melting Point
1 586,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
Ранг
Silver
appearancesilvery white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0,0000094 1/K
molar heat capacity
37,03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
навъConductor
electrical conductivity
0,77 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,0000013 m Ω
superconductivity
magnetism
навъferromagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
292 K
Néel temperature
сохт
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3,64 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
bulk modulus
38 GPa
shear modulus
22 GPa
Young's modulus
55 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0,26
speed of sound
2 680 m/s
classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number26
Mendeleev Number27
Pettifor Number27
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
158 ± 20 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
49 000
Neutron Mass Absorption
7,3
ададҳои квантӣ9D2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Gadolinium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes35
Natural Isotopes7
Isotopic Composition15824.84%15824.84%16021.86%16021.86%15620.47%15620.47%15514.80%15514.80%15715.65%15715.65%1542.18%1542.18%1520.20%1520.20%

133Gd

Адади массавӣ133
neutron number69
relative atomic mass
132,961288 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

134Gd

Адади массавӣ134
neutron number70
relative atomic mass
133,955416 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

135Gd

Адади массавӣ135
neutron number71
relative atomic mass
134,952496 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,1 ± 0,2 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1996
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2%

136Gd

Адади массавӣ136
neutron number72
relative atomic mass
135,9473 ± 0,00032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф2000
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

137Gd

Адади массавӣ137
neutron number73
relative atomic mass
136,94502 ± 0,00032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,2 ± 0,2 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1999
parity

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

138Gd

Адади массавӣ138
neutron number74
relative atomic mass
137,940247 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4,7 ± 0,9 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

139Gd

Адади массавӣ139
neutron number75
relative atomic mass
138,93813 ± 0,00021 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
5,7 ± 0,3 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1983
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

140Gd

Адади массавӣ140
neutron number76
relative atomic mass
139,933674 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
15,8 ± 0,4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)67%
ϵ (electron capture)33%

141Gd

Адади массавӣ141
neutron number77
relative atomic mass
140,932126 ± 0,000021213 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
14 ± 4 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.03%

142Gd

Адади массавӣ142
neutron number78
relative atomic mass
141,928116 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
70,2 ± 0,6 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1986
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)52%
e+ (positron emission)48%

143Gd

Адади массавӣ143
neutron number79
relative atomic mass
142,926750678 ± 0,000215032 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
39 ± 2 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1975
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)

144Gd

Адади массавӣ144
neutron number80
relative atomic mass
143,922963 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4,47 ± 0,06 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

145Gd

Адади массавӣ145
neutron number81
relative atomic mass
144,921710051 ± 0,000021165 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
23 ± 0,4 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1959
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

146Gd

Адади массавӣ146
neutron number82
relative atomic mass
145,918318513 ± 0,000004376 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
48,27 ± 0,09 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1957
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

147Gd

Адади массавӣ147
neutron number83
relative atomic mass
146,919101014 ± 0,000002025 Da
g-factor
0,29142857142857 ± 0,025714285714286
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
38,06 ± 0,12 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1957
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

148Gd

Адади массавӣ148
neutron number84
relative atomic mass
147,918121414 ± 0,000001566 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
71,3 ± 1 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

149Gd

Адади массавӣ149
neutron number85
relative atomic mass
148,919347666 ± 0,000003553 Da
g-factor
0,25142857142857 ± 0,011428571428571
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9,28 ± 0,1 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1951
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)4.3%

150Gd

Адади массавӣ150
neutron number86
relative atomic mass
149,918663949 ± 0,0000065 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,79 ± 0,08 My
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

151Gd

Адади массавӣ151
neutron number87
relative atomic mass
150,920354922 ± 0,000003212 Da
g-factor
0,22 ± 0,017142857142857
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
123,9 ± 1 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%
α (α emission)1.1%

152Gd

Адади массавӣ152
neutron number88
relative atomic mass
151,919798414 ± 0,000001081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0,2 ± 0,03
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
108 ± 8 Ty
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1938
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

153Gd

Адади массавӣ153
neutron number89
relative atomic mass
152,921756945 ± 0,000001075 Da
g-factor
0,25333333333333 ± 0,053333333333333
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
240,6 ± 0,7 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1947
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

154Gd

Адади массавӣ154
neutron number90
relative atomic mass
153,920872974 ± 0,000001066 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
2,18 ± 0,02
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1938
parity+

155Gd

Адади массавӣ155
neutron number91
relative atomic mass
154,922629356 ± 0,000001055 Da
g-factor
-0,17273333333333 ± 0,00026666666666667
natural abundance
14,8 ± 0,09
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1,27 ± 0,03
таърихи кашф1933
parity-

156Gd

Адади массавӣ156
neutron number92
relative atomic mass
155,92213012 ± 0,000001054 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20,47 ± 0,03
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1933
parity+

157Gd

Адади массавӣ157
neutron number93
relative atomic mass
156,923967424 ± 0,000001048 Da
g-factor
-0,22653333333333 ± 0,0004
natural abundance
15,65 ± 0,04
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1,35 ± 0,03
таърихи кашф1933
parity-

158Gd

Адади массавӣ158
neutron number94
relative atomic mass
157,9241112 ± 0,000001048 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
24,84 ± 0,08
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1933
parity+

159Gd

Адади массавӣ159
neutron number95
relative atomic mass
158,926395822 ± 0,000001051 Da
g-factor
-0,29333333333333 ± 0,02
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18,479 ± 0,004 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

160Gd

Адади массавӣ160
neutron number96
relative atomic mass
159,927061202 ± 0,000001206 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
21,86 ± 0,03
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)

161Gd

Адади массавӣ161
neutron number97
relative atomic mass
160,929676267 ± 0,000001614 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3,646 ± 0,003 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

162Gd

Адади массавӣ162
neutron number98
relative atomic mass
161,930991812 ± 0,000004254 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
8,4 ± 0,2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1967
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

163Gd

Адади массавӣ163
neutron number99
relative atomic mass
162,93409664 ± 0,000000855 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
68 ± 3 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1982
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

164Gd

Адади массавӣ164
neutron number100
relative atomic mass
163,935916193 ± 0,000001073 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
45 ± 3 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1988
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

165Gd

Адади массавӣ165
neutron number101
relative atomic mass
164,93931708 ± 0,0000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
11,6 ± 1 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1998
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

166Gd

Адади массавӣ166
neutron number102
relative atomic mass
165,941630413 ± 0,0000017 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
5,1 ± 0,8 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

167Gd

Адади массавӣ167
neutron number103
relative atomic mass
166,945490012 ± 0,000005596 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4,2 ± 0,3 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф2012
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

168Gd

Адади массавӣ168
neutron number104
relative atomic mass
167,948309 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3,03 ± 0,16 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

169Gd

Адади массавӣ169
neutron number105
relative atomic mass
168,952882 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
750 ± 210 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф2012
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

170Gd

Адади массавӣ170
neutron number106
relative atomic mass
169,956146 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
420 ± 130 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф2012
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

171Gd

Адади массавӣ171
neutron number107
relative atomic mass
170,961127 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф2018
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

172Gd

Адади массавӣ172
neutron number108
relative atomic mass
171,964605 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф2018
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gadolinium

таърих

кошифJean de Marignac
макони кашфSwitzerland
таърихи кашф1880
РешашиносӣNamed after the mineral gadolinite.
pronunciationGAD-eh-LIN-i-em (Англисӣ)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
6,2 mg/kg
natural abundance (Уқёнус)
0,0000007 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0,000023 %
natural abundance (Офтоб)
0,0000002 %
Abundance in Universe
0,0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.2565
2p4.2946
2s16.783
3d13.723
3p19.8508
3s20.2903
4d34.3664
4f38.9864
4p31.3532
4s30.556
5p47.236
5s45.118
6s55.7854