Hafnium

Hafnium (Hf)

element with the atomic number of 72
Atomic Number72
Atomic Weight178.49
Massagetal180
Group4
Period6
Blockd
proton72 p+
neutron108 n0
elektron72 e-
Animated Bohr model of Hf (Hafnium)

Physical Property

Atoomradius
155 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
152 pm
Metallic Radius
144 pm
Ioonradius
58 pm
Crystal Radius
72 pm
Van der Waals radius
223 pm
density
13,3 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Hafnium0153045607590105120135150165180195210225240pmAtoomradiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energie
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
6,82507 eV/particle
ionization energy of Hf (Hafnium)
Verdampingswarmte
575 kJ/mol
smeltingswarmte
25,1 kJ/mol
Vormingsentalpie
618,4 kJ/mol
elektron
Elektronskil2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
Bohr model: Hf (Hafnium)
Valenselektrone2
Lewisteorie: Hf (Hafnium)
elektronkonfigurasie[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d2 6s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Hf (Hafnium)
Orbital Diagram of Hf (Hafnium)
Oksidasietoestand-2, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegatiwiteit
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
0,8583981383413326 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
4 873,15 K
Melting Point
2 506,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
kleur
Gray
appearancesteel gray
Brekingsindeks
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0,0000059 1/K
molar heat capacity
25,73 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,144 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Geleidingsvermoë
3,3 MS/m
Elektriese resistiwiteit
0,0000003 m Ω
superconductivity
0,128 K
Magnetisme
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0,0000000053 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0,000000000946 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0,0000705
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3,2 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
5,5 MPa
Massamodulus
110 GPa
Skuifmodulus
30 GPa
Young se modulus
78 GPa
Poisson se verhouding
0,37
Spoed van klank
3 010 m/s
classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIVA
IUPAC GroupIVB
Glawe Number50
Mendeleev Number45
Pettifor Number50
Geochemical Classhigh field strength
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
103 ± 6 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
104
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,02
quantum number3F2
Ruimtegroep194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Hafnium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes33
Natural Isotopes6
Isotopic Composition18035.08%18035.08%17827.28%17827.28%17718.60%17718.60%17913.62%17913.62%1765.26%1765.26%1740.16%1740.16%

153Hf

Massagetal153
neutron number81
relative atomic mass
152,970692 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum2000
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

154Hf

Massagetal154
neutron number82
relative atomic mass
153,964863 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
2 ± 1 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1981
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0%

155Hf

Massagetal155
neutron number83
relative atomic mass
154,963167 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
843 ± 30 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1981
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

156Hf

Massagetal156
neutron number84
relative atomic mass
155,959399083 ± 0,000160752 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
23 ± 1 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1979
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

157Hf

Massagetal157
neutron number85
relative atomic mass
156,958288 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
115 ± 1 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1965
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)94%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)14%

158Hf

Massagetal158
neutron number86
relative atomic mass
157,954801217 ± 0,00001878 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
2,85 ± 0,07 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1965
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)55.7%
α (α emission)44.3%

159Hf

Massagetal159
neutron number87
relative atomic mass
158,953995837 ± 0,000018049 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
5,2 ± 0,1 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1973
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)65%
α (α emission)35%

160Hf

Massagetal160
neutron number88
relative atomic mass
159,950682728 ± 0,000010241 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
13,6 ± 0,2 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.3%
α (α emission)0.7%

161Hf

Massagetal161
neutron number89
relative atomic mass
160,950277927 ± 0,000025174 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
18,4 ± 0,4 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1973
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.71%
α (α emission)0.29%

162Hf

Massagetal162
neutron number90
relative atomic mass
161,947215526 ± 0,00000961 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
39,4 ± 0,9 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1982
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.992%
α (α emission)0.008%

163Hf

Massagetal163
neutron number91
relative atomic mass
162,947107211 ± 0,000027582 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
40 ± 0,6 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1982
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

164Hf

Massagetal164
neutron number92
relative atomic mass
163,944370709 ± 0,000016975 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
111 ± 8 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1981
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

165Hf

Massagetal165
neutron number93
relative atomic mass
164,944567 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
76 ± 4 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1981
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

166Hf

Massagetal166
neutron number94
relative atomic mass
165,94218 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
6,77 ± 0,3 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1965
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

167Hf

Massagetal167
neutron number95
relative atomic mass
166,9426 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
2,05 ± 0,05 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1969
parity

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

168Hf

Massagetal168
neutron number96
relative atomic mass
167,940568 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
25,95 ± 0,2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1961
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)98%
e+ (positron emission)2%

169Hf

Massagetal169
neutron number97
relative atomic mass
168,941259 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
3,24 ± 0,04 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1969
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

170Hf

Massagetal170
neutron number98
relative atomic mass
169,939609 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
16,01 ± 0,13 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1961
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

171Hf

Massagetal171
neutron number99
relative atomic mass
170,940492 ± 0,000031 Da
g-factor
-0,19257142857143 ± 0,0034285714285714
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
12,1 ± 0,4 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,46 ± 0,03
ontdekkingsdatum1951
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

172Hf

Massagetal172
neutron number100
relative atomic mass
171,939449716 ± 0,000026224 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
1,87 ± 0,03 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1951
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

173Hf

Massagetal173
neutron number101
relative atomic mass
172,940513 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
1,004 ± 0,014
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
23,6 ± 0,1 h
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1951
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

174Hf

Massagetal174
neutron number102
relative atomic mass
173,940048377 ± 0,000002425 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0,16 ± 0,12
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
2 ± 0,4 Py
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

175Hf

Massagetal175
neutron number103
relative atomic mass
174,941511424 ± 0,00000245 Da
g-factor
-0,2708 ± 0,0036
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
70,65 ± 0,19 d
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
2,72 ± 0,02
ontdekkingsdatum1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

176Hf

Massagetal176
neutron number104
relative atomic mass
175,941409797 ± 0,000001591 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
5,26 ± 0,7
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1934
parity+

177Hf

Massagetal177
neutron number105
relative atomic mass
176,943230187 ± 0,000001514 Da
g-factor
0,226 ± 0,00025714285714286
natural abundance
18,6 ± 0,16
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,37 ± 0,03
ontdekkingsdatum1934
parity-

178Hf

Massagetal178
neutron number106
relative atomic mass
177,943708322 ± 0,000001519 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27,28 ± 0,28
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1934
parity+

179Hf

Massagetal179
neutron number107
relative atomic mass
178,945825705 ± 0,00000152 Da
g-factor
-0,14197777777778 ± 0,00031111111111111
natural abundance
13,62 ± 0,11
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,79 ± 0,03
ontdekkingsdatum1934
parity+

180Hf

Massagetal180
neutron number108
relative atomic mass
179,946559537 ± 0,000001525 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
35,08 ± 0,33
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1934
parity+

181Hf

Massagetal181
neutron number109
relative atomic mass
180,949110834 ± 0,000001527 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
42,39 ± 0,06 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1935
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

182Hf

Massagetal182
neutron number110
relative atomic mass
181,950563684 ± 0,000006619 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
8,9 ± 0,09 My
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1961
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

183Hf

Massagetal183
neutron number111
relative atomic mass
182,953533203 ± 0,000032251 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
1,018 ± 0,002 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1956
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

184Hf

Massagetal184
neutron number112
relative atomic mass
183,955448507 ± 0,000042625 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
4,12 ± 0,05 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

185Hf

Massagetal185
neutron number113
relative atomic mass
184,958862 ± 0,000069 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
3,5 ± 0,6 m
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1993
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

186Hf

Massagetal186
neutron number114
relative atomic mass
185,960897 ± 0,000055 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
2,6 ± 1,2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1998
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

187Hf

Massagetal187
neutron number115
relative atomic mass
186,964573 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1999
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)

188Hf

Massagetal188
neutron number116
relative atomic mass
187,966903 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1999
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)

189Hf

Massagetal189
neutron number117
relative atomic mass
188,970853 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2009
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

190Hf

Massagetal190
neutron number118
relative atomic mass
189,973376 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum2012
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
Hf-crystal bar
Hafnium

geskiedenis

Ontdek deurDirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy
ligging van ontdekkingDenmark
ontdekkingsdatum1923
etimologieFrom Hafnia, the Latin name of Copenhagen.
uitspraakHAF-ni-em (Engels)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (oseaan)
0,000007 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
natural abundance (Meteoroïde)
0,000017 %
natural abundance (Son)
0,0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00000007 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.3984
2p4.4012
2s18.8102
3d13.5702
3p21.0168
3s21.6885
4d36.476
4f39.7904
4p34.0704
4s33.0228
5d55.3805
5p52.415
5s50.167
6s62.8356