Lutetium

Lutetium (Lu)

Silvery-white rare-earth metal which is relatively stable in air. It happens to be the most expensive rare-earth metal. Its found with almost all rare-earth metals, but is very difficult to separate from other elements. Least abundant of all natural elements. Used in metal alloys, and as a catalyst in various processes. There are two natural, stable isotopes, and seven radioisotopes, the most stable being Lu-174 with a half-life of 3.3 years. The separation of lutetium from Ytterbium was described by Georges Urbain in 1907. It was discovered at approximately the same time by Carl Auer von Welsbach. The name comes from the Greek word lutetia which means Paris.
Atomic Number71
Atomic Weight174.9668
Mass Number175
Group
Period6
Blockf
Protons71 p+
Neutrons104 n0
Electrons71 e-
Lutetium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Lu (Lutetium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Lu (Lutetium) Bohr Model: Lu (Lutetium) Orbital Diagram of Lu (Lutetium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
175 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
162 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
86.1 pm
Crystal Radius
100.1 pm
Van der Waals Radius
224 pm
Density
9.84 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
992 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
5.425871 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
414 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
427.6 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2
Valence Electrons3
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2
Oxidation States0, 2, 3
Electronegativity
1
Electrophilicity
0.817098693336918 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
3,675.15 K
Melting Point
1,936.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery white
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.00001 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
26.86 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.154 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
1.8 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000057 m Ω
Superconducting Point
0.1 K
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000012 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.00000000021 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0000118
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
3.51 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
48 GPa
Shear Modulus
27 GPa
Young Modulus
69 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.26
Speed of Sound
Classification
CategoryLanthanides, Transition metals
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number19
Mendeleev Number41
Pettifor Number21
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
970.6 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
137 ± 7 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
85
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.022
Quantum Numbers2D3/2
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Lutetium

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes37
Radioactive Isotopes38

150Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
149.973407 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number150
G-Factor
Half Life
45 ± 3 ms
Spin5
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1993
Parity-

150Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

151Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
150.967471 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number151
G-Factor
Half Life
78.4 ± 0.9 ms
Spin11/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1982
Parity-

151Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

152Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
151.96412 ± 0.00021 Da
Mass Number152
G-Factor
Half Life
650 ± 70 ms
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

152Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)15%

153Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
152.958802248 ± 0.00016105 Da
Mass Number153
G-Factor
Half Life
900 ± 200 ms
Spin11/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1989
Parity-

153Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
p (proton emission)0%

154Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
153.957416 ± 0.000216 Da
Mass Number154
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity-

154Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
α (α emission)%

155Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
154.954326005 ± 0.00002066 Da
Mass Number155
G-Factor
Half Life
68 ± 2 ms
Spin11/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1965
Parity-

155Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)90%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)10%

156Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
155.953086606 ± 0.000058102 Da
Mass Number156
G-Factor
Half Life
494 ± 12 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1965
Parity

156Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

157Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
156.950144807 ± 0.000012961 Da
Mass Number157
G-Factor
Half Life
7.7 ± 2 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

157Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
α (α emission)%

158Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
157.94931562 ± 0.000016236 Da
Mass Number158
G-Factor
Half Life
10.6 ± 0.3 s
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity

158Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.09%
α (α emission)0.91%

159Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
158.946635615 ± 0.000040433 Da
Mass Number159
G-Factor
Half Life
12.1 ± 1 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1980
Parity+

159Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)%

160Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
159.946033 ± 0.000061 Da
Mass Number160
G-Factor
Half Life
36.1 ± 0.3 s
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity-

160Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)%

161Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
160.943572 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number161
G-Factor
0.444 ± 0.006
Half Life
77 ± 2 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1973
Parity+

161Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

162Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
161.943282776 ± 0.000080554 Da
Mass Number162
G-Factor
0.0551 ± 0.0011
Half Life
1.37 ± 0.02 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.519 ± 0.008
Discovery Year1978
Parity-

162Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

163Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
162.941179 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number163
G-Factor
0.1534 ± 0.002
Half Life
3.97 ± 0.13 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

163Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

164Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
163.941339 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number164
G-Factor
0.0589 ± 0.0011
Half Life
3.14 ± 0.03 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.608 ± 0.007
Discovery Year1977
Parity-

164Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

165Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
164.939406758 ± 0.00002849 Da
Mass Number165
G-Factor
-0.0488 ± 0.0006
Half Life
10.74 ± 0.1 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1973
Parity+

165Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

166Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
165.939859 ± 0.000032 Da
Mass Number166
G-Factor
0.48383333333333 ± 0.002
Half Life
2.65 ± 0.1 m
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
4.33 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1969
Parity-

166Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

167Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
166.938243 ± 0.00004 Da
Mass Number167
G-Factor
0.66228571428571 ± 0.0011428571428571
Half Life
51.5 ± 1 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
3.28 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1958
Parity+

167Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

168Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
167.938729798 ± 0.000040766 Da
Mass Number168
G-Factor
0.50116666666667 ± 0.0041666666666667
Half Life
5.5 ± 0.1 m
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
4.77 ± 0.06
Discovery Year1960
Parity-

168Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

169Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
168.937645845 ± 0.000003226 Da
Mass Number169
G-Factor
0.65371428571429 ± 0.0011428571428571
Half Life
34.06 ± 0.05 h
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
3.48 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1955
Parity+

169Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

170Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
169.93847923 ± 0.000018081 Da
Mass Number170
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.012 ± 0.03 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

170Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

171Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
170.937918591 ± 0.000001999 Da
Mass Number171
G-Factor
0.65314285714286 ± 0.0011428571428571
Half Life
8.247 ± 0.023 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
3.53 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

171Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

172Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
171.93909132 ± 0.000002507 Da
Mass Number172
G-Factor
0.72275 ± 0.0025
Half Life
6.7 ± 0.03 d
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
3.8 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

172Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

173Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
172.938935722 ± 0.000001682 Da
Mass Number173
G-Factor
0.64942857142857 ± 0.00057142857142857
Half Life
1.37 ± 0.01 y
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
3.53 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

173Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

174Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
173.94034284 ± 0.000001682 Da
Mass Number174
G-Factor
1.982 ± 0.005
Half Life
3.31 ± 0.05 y
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.773 ± 0.007
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

174Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

175Lu

Abundance
97.401 ± 0.013
Relative Atomic Mass
174.940777211 ± 0.000001295 Da
Mass Number175
G-Factor
0.63591428571429 ± 0.00054285714285714
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
3.49 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

176Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
2.599 ± 0.013
Relative Atomic Mass
175.942691711 ± 0.000001301 Da
Mass Number176
G-Factor
0.45142857142857 ± 0.00071428571428571
Half Life
37.01 ± 0.17 Gy
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1935
Parity-

176Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)0.45%

177Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
176.94376357 ± 0.00000131 Da
Mass Number177
G-Factor
0.63757142857143 ± 0.0004
Half Life
6.6443 ± 0.0009 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
3.39 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1945
Parity+

177Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

178Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
177.945960065 ± 0.000002416 Da
Mass Number178
G-Factor
-1.373 ± 0.009
Half Life
28.4 ± 0.2 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.708 ± 0.01
Discovery Year1957
Parity+

178Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

179Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
178.947332985 ± 0.000005528 Da
Mass Number179
G-Factor
0.67657142857143 ± 0.0034285714285714
Half Life
4.59 ± 0.06 h
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
3.32 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

179Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

180Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
179.949890744 ± 0.000075926 Da
Mass Number180
G-Factor
Half Life
5.7 ± 0.1 m
Spin5
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

180Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

181Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
180.951908 ± 0.000135 Da
Mass Number181
G-Factor
Half Life
3.5 ± 0.3 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1982
Parity+

181Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

182Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
181.955158 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number182
G-Factor
Half Life
2 ± 0.2 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1982
Parity-

182Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

183Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
182.957363 ± 0.000086 Da
Mass Number183
G-Factor
Half Life
58 ± 4 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

183Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

184Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
183.96103 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number184
G-Factor
Half Life
20 ± 3 s
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1989
Parity+

184Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

185Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
184.963542 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number185
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity+

185Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

186Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
185.96745 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number186
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity

186Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

187Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
186.970188 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number187
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

187Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

188Lu

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
187.974428 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number188
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity

188Lu Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

History

French chemist Georges Urbain successfully separated lutetium from ytterbia in 1907 in Paris. Austrian scientist Carl Auer von Welsbach and American chemist Charles James also succeeded in isolating lutetium independently in the same year. Pure lutetium metal was first produced in 1953. Lutetia is the ancient name for Paris

DiscoverersGeorges Urbain
Discovery LocationFrance
Discovery Year1907
Etymology (Name Origin)Named for the ancient name of Paris, Lutecia.
Pronunciationloo-TEE-shi-em (English)
Lutetium is considered to be non toxic
Lutetium was the last natural rare earth element to be discovered

Uses

Lutetium oxide is used to make catalysts for cracking hydrocarbons in the petrochemical industry. Lutetium aluminum garnet has been proposed for use as a lens material in high refractive index immersion lithography. Lutetium is used as a phosphor in LED light bulbs. It has no practical applications.

Sources

Found with ytterbium in gadolinite and xenotime. Usually obtained from monazite sand which is ofter 50% rare earth by weight and 0.003% lutetium.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.8 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00000015 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.0000029 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.3805
2p4.389
2s18.5502
3d13.5812
3p20.8337
3s21.4655
4d35.7108
4f40.0688
4p33.8096
4s32.7308
5d50.887
5p52.32
5s50.045
6s62.1956