Гафний

Гафний (Hf)

element with the atomic number of 72
Atomic Number72
Atomic Weight178.49
mass number180
Group4
Period6
Blockd
Протон72 p+
Нейтрон108 n0
Электрон72 e-
Animated Bohr model of Hf (Гафний)

Physical Property

Атомдук Радиус
155 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
152 pm
Metallic Radius
144 pm
ionic radius
58 pm
Crystal Radius
72 pm
Van der Waals radius
223 pm
density
13,3 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Гафний0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230pmАтомдук РадиусCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

энергия
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
6,82507 eV/particle
ionization energy of Hf (Гафний)
enthalpy of vaporization
575 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
25,1 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
618,4 kJ/mol
Электрон
electron shell2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
Bohr model: Hf (Гафний)
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Hf (Гафний)
electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d2 6s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Hf (Гафний)
Orbital Diagram of Hf (Гафний)
oxidation number-2, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
electronegativity
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
0,8583981383413326 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
4 873,15 K
Melting Point
2 506,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
Түс –
Gray
appearancesteel gray
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0,0000059 1/K
molar heat capacity
25,73 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,144 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
3,3 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,0000003 m Ω
superconductivity
0,128 K
Магнетизм
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0,0000000053 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0,000000000946 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0,0000705
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
түзүм
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3,2 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
5,5 MPa
bulk modulus
110 GPa
shear modulus
30 GPa
Young's modulus
78 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0,37
speed of sound
3 010 m/s
classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIVA
IUPAC GroupIVB
Glawe Number50
Mendeleev Number45
Pettifor Number50
Geochemical Classhigh field strength
Литофиль элементтериlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
103 ± 6 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
104
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,02
Кванттык сандар3F2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Hafnium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes33
Natural Isotopes6
Isotopic Composition18035.08%18035.08%17827.28%17827.28%17718.60%17718.60%17913.62%17913.62%1765.26%1765.26%1740.16%1740.16%

153Hf

mass number153
neutron number81
relative atomic mass
152,970692 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
Спин1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention2000
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

154Hf

mass number154
neutron number82
relative atomic mass
153,964863 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
2 ± 1 s
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1981
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0%

155Hf

mass number155
neutron number83
relative atomic mass
154,963167 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
843 ± 30 ms
Спин7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1981
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

156Hf

mass number156
neutron number84
relative atomic mass
155,959399083 ± 0,000160752 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
23 ± 1 ms
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1979
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

157Hf

mass number157
neutron number85
relative atomic mass
156,958288 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
115 ± 1 ms
Спин7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1965
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)94%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)14%

158Hf

mass number158
neutron number86
relative atomic mass
157,954801217 ± 0,00001878 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
2,85 ± 0,07 s
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1965
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)55.7%
α (α emission)44.3%

159Hf

mass number159
neutron number87
relative atomic mass
158,953995837 ± 0,000018049 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
5,2 ± 0,1 s
Спин7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1973
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)65%
α (α emission)35%

160Hf

mass number160
neutron number88
relative atomic mass
159,950682728 ± 0,000010241 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
13,6 ± 0,2 s
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.3%
α (α emission)0.7%

161Hf

mass number161
neutron number89
relative atomic mass
160,950277927 ± 0,000025174 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
18,4 ± 0,4 s
Спин7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1973
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.71%
α (α emission)0.29%

162Hf

mass number162
neutron number90
relative atomic mass
161,947215526 ± 0,00000961 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
39,4 ± 0,9 s
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1982
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.992%
α (α emission)0.008%

163Hf

mass number163
neutron number91
relative atomic mass
162,947107211 ± 0,000027582 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
40 ± 0,6 s
Спин5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1982
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

164Hf

mass number164
neutron number92
relative atomic mass
163,944370709 ± 0,000016975 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
111 ± 8 s
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1981
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

165Hf

mass number165
neutron number93
relative atomic mass
164,944567 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
76 ± 4 s
Спин5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1981
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

166Hf

mass number166
neutron number94
relative atomic mass
165,94218 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
6,77 ± 0,3 m
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1965
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

167Hf

mass number167
neutron number95
relative atomic mass
166,9426 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
2,05 ± 0,05 m
Спин5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1969
parity

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

168Hf

mass number168
neutron number96
relative atomic mass
167,940568 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
25,95 ± 0,2 m
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1961
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)98%
e+ (positron emission)2%

169Hf

mass number169
neutron number97
relative atomic mass
168,941259 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
3,24 ± 0,04 m
Спин5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1969
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

170Hf

mass number170
neutron number98
relative atomic mass
169,939609 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
16,01 ± 0,13 h
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1961
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

171Hf

mass number171
neutron number99
relative atomic mass
170,940492 ± 0,000031 Da
g-factor
-0,19257142857143 ± 0,0034285714285714
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
12,1 ± 0,4 h
Спин7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,46 ± 0,03
time of discovery or invention1951
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

172Hf

mass number172
neutron number100
relative atomic mass
171,939449716 ± 0,000026224 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
1,87 ± 0,03 y
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1951
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

173Hf

mass number173
neutron number101
relative atomic mass
172,940513 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
1,004 ± 0,014
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
23,6 ± 0,1 h
Спин1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1951
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

174Hf

mass number174
neutron number102
relative atomic mass
173,940048377 ± 0,000002425 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0,16 ± 0,12
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
2 ± 0,4 Py
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

175Hf

mass number175
neutron number103
relative atomic mass
174,941511424 ± 0,00000245 Da
g-factor
-0,2708 ± 0,0036
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
70,65 ± 0,19 d
Спин5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
2,72 ± 0,02
time of discovery or invention1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

176Hf

mass number176
neutron number104
relative atomic mass
175,941409797 ± 0,000001591 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
5,26 ± 0,7
Радиоактивдүүлүкstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1934
parity+

177Hf

mass number177
neutron number105
relative atomic mass
176,943230187 ± 0,000001514 Da
g-factor
0,226 ± 0,00025714285714286
natural abundance
18,6 ± 0,16
Радиоактивдүүлүкstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Спин7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,37 ± 0,03
time of discovery or invention1934
parity-

178Hf

mass number178
neutron number106
relative atomic mass
177,943708322 ± 0,000001519 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27,28 ± 0,28
Радиоактивдүүлүкstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1934
parity+

179Hf

mass number179
neutron number107
relative atomic mass
178,945825705 ± 0,00000152 Da
g-factor
-0,14197777777778 ± 0,00031111111111111
natural abundance
13,62 ± 0,11
Радиоактивдүүлүкstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Спин9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,79 ± 0,03
time of discovery or invention1934
parity+

180Hf

mass number180
neutron number108
relative atomic mass
179,946559537 ± 0,000001525 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
35,08 ± 0,33
Радиоактивдүүлүкstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1934
parity+

181Hf

mass number181
neutron number109
relative atomic mass
180,949110834 ± 0,000001527 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
42,39 ± 0,06 d
Спин1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1935
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

182Hf

mass number182
neutron number110
relative atomic mass
181,950563684 ± 0,000006619 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
8,9 ± 0,09 My
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1961
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

183Hf

mass number183
neutron number111
relative atomic mass
182,953533203 ± 0,000032251 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
1,018 ± 0,002 h
Спин3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1956
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

184Hf

mass number184
neutron number112
relative atomic mass
183,955448507 ± 0,000042625 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
4,12 ± 0,05 h
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

185Hf

mass number185
neutron number113
relative atomic mass
184,958862 ± 0,000069 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
3,5 ± 0,6 m
Спин9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1993
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

186Hf

mass number186
neutron number114
relative atomic mass
185,960897 ± 0,000055 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
2,6 ± 1,2 m
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1998
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

187Hf

mass number187
neutron number115
relative atomic mass
186,964573 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
Спин9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1999
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)

188Hf

mass number188
neutron number116
relative atomic mass
187,966903 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1999
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)

189Hf

mass number189
neutron number117
relative atomic mass
188,970853 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
Спин3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention2009
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

190Hf

mass number190
neutron number118
relative atomic mass
189,973376 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention2012
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
Hf-crystal bar
Hafnium

тарых

discoverer or inventorDirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy
location of discoveryDenmark
time of discovery or invention1923
ЭтимологияFrom Hafnia, the Latin name of Copenhagen.
pronunciationHAF-ni-em (англисче)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (Океан)
0,000007 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0,000017 %
natural abundance (Күн)
0,0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00000007 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.3984
2p4.4012
2s18.8102
3d13.5702
3p21.0168
3s21.6885
4d36.476
4f39.7904
4p34.0704
4s33.0228
5d55.3805
5p52.415
5s50.167
6s62.8356