Hafnium

Hafnium (Hf)

element with the atomic number of 72
Atomic Number72
Atomic Weight178.49
Nombor jisim180
Group4
Period6
Blockd
proton72 p+
neutron108 n0
Elektron72 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Hf (Hafnium)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
155 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
152 pm
Metallic Radius
144 pm
ionic radius
58 pm
Crystal Radius
72 pm
Jejari van der Waals
223 pm
ketumpatan
13.3 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Hafnium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
Pertalian elektron
ionization energy
6.82507 eV/particle
ionization energy of Hf (Hafnium)
Entalpi pengewapan
575 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
25.1 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
618.4 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
Model Bohr: Hf (Hafnium)
Elektron valens2
Teori ion Lewis: Hf (Hafnium)
tatarajah elektron[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d2 6s2
Enhanced Model Bohr of Hf (Hafnium)
Orbital Diagram of Hf (Hafnium)
Keadaan pengoksidaan-2, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Keelektronegatifan
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
0.8583981383413326 eV/particle
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
4,873.15 K
Melting Point
2,506.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
rupa
warna
Gray
rupasteel gray
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
Pengembangan terma
0.0000059 1/K
molar heat capacity
25.73 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.144 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
3.3 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.0000003 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
0.128 K
kemagnetan
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000053 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000000946 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.0000705
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3.2 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
5.5 MPa
Modulus pukal
110 GPa
shear modulus
30 GPa
Young's modulus
78 GPa
Nisbah Poisson
0.37
Kelajuan bunyi
3,010 m/s
pengelasan
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIVA
IUPAC GroupIVB
Glawe Number50
Mendeleev Number45
Pettifor Number50
Geochemical Classhigh field strength
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
103 ± 6 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
104
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.02
Nombor kuantum3F2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Hafnium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes33
Natural Isotopes6
Isotopic Composition18035.08%18035.08%17827.28%17827.28%17718.60%17718.60%17913.62%17913.62%1765.26%1765.26%1740.16%1740.16%

153Hf

Nombor jisim153
nombor neutron81
jisim atom relatif
152.970692 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2000
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

154Hf

Nombor jisim154
nombor neutron82
jisim atom relatif
153.964863 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2 ± 1 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1981
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0%

155Hf

Nombor jisim155
nombor neutron83
jisim atom relatif
154.963167 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
843 ± 30 ms
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1981
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

156Hf

Nombor jisim156
nombor neutron84
jisim atom relatif
155.959399083 ± 0.000160752 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
23 ± 1 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1979
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

157Hf

Nombor jisim157
nombor neutron85
jisim atom relatif
156.958288 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
115 ± 1 ms
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1965
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)94%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)14%

158Hf

Nombor jisim158
nombor neutron86
jisim atom relatif
157.954801217 ± 0.00001878 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.85 ± 0.07 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1965
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)55.7%
α (α emission)44.3%

159Hf

Nombor jisim159
nombor neutron87
jisim atom relatif
158.953995837 ± 0.000018049 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
5.2 ± 0.1 s
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1973
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)65%
α (α emission)35%

160Hf

Nombor jisim160
nombor neutron88
jisim atom relatif
159.950682728 ± 0.000010241 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
13.6 ± 0.2 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1973
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.3%
α (α emission)0.7%

161Hf

Nombor jisim161
nombor neutron89
jisim atom relatif
160.950277927 ± 0.000025174 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
18.4 ± 0.4 s
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1973
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.71%
α (α emission)0.29%

162Hf

Nombor jisim162
nombor neutron90
jisim atom relatif
161.947215526 ± 0.00000961 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
39.4 ± 0.9 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1982
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.992%
α (α emission)0.008%

163Hf

Nombor jisim163
nombor neutron91
jisim atom relatif
162.947107211 ± 0.000027582 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
40 ± 0.6 s
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1982
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

164Hf

Nombor jisim164
nombor neutron92
jisim atom relatif
163.944370709 ± 0.000016975 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
111 ± 8 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1981
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

165Hf

Nombor jisim165
nombor neutron93
jisim atom relatif
164.944567 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
76 ± 4 s
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1981
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

166Hf

Nombor jisim166
nombor neutron94
jisim atom relatif
165.94218 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
6.77 ± 0.3 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1965
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

167Hf

Nombor jisim167
nombor neutron95
jisim atom relatif
166.9426 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.05 ± 0.05 m
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1969
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

168Hf

Nombor jisim168
nombor neutron96
jisim atom relatif
167.940568 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
25.95 ± 0.2 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1961
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)98%
e+ (positron emission)2%

169Hf

Nombor jisim169
nombor neutron97
jisim atom relatif
168.941259 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.24 ± 0.04 m
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1969
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

170Hf

Nombor jisim170
nombor neutron98
jisim atom relatif
169.939609 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
16.01 ± 0.13 h
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1961
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

171Hf

Nombor jisim171
nombor neutron99
jisim atom relatif
170.940492 ± 0.000031 Da
g-factor
-0.19257142857143 ± 0.0034285714285714
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
12.1 ± 0.4 h
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3.46 ± 0.03
tarikh penemuan1951
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

172Hf

Nombor jisim172
nombor neutron100
jisim atom relatif
171.939449716 ± 0.000026224 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.87 ± 0.03 y
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1951
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

173Hf

Nombor jisim173
nombor neutron101
jisim atom relatif
172.940513 ± 0.00003 Da
g-factor
1.004 ± 0.014
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
23.6 ± 0.1 h
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1951
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

174Hf

Nombor jisim174
nombor neutron102
jisim atom relatif
173.940048377 ± 0.000002425 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.16 ± 0.12
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2 ± 0.4 Py
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1939
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

175Hf

Nombor jisim175
nombor neutron103
jisim atom relatif
174.941511424 ± 0.00000245 Da
g-factor
-0.2708 ± 0.0036
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
70.65 ± 0.19 d
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
2.72 ± 0.02
tarikh penemuan1949
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
ϵ (electron capture)100%

176Hf

Nombor jisim176
nombor neutron104
jisim atom relatif
175.941409797 ± 0.000001591 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
5.26 ± 0.7
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1934
parity+

177Hf

Nombor jisim177
nombor neutron105
jisim atom relatif
176.943230187 ± 0.000001514 Da
g-factor
0.226 ± 0.00025714285714286
natural abundance
18.6 ± 0.16
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3.37 ± 0.03
tarikh penemuan1934
parity-

178Hf

Nombor jisim178
nombor neutron106
jisim atom relatif
177.943708322 ± 0.000001519 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27.28 ± 0.28
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1934
parity+

179Hf

Nombor jisim179
nombor neutron107
jisim atom relatif
178.945825705 ± 0.00000152 Da
g-factor
-0.14197777777778 ± 0.00031111111111111
natural abundance
13.62 ± 0.11
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3.79 ± 0.03
tarikh penemuan1934
parity+

180Hf

Nombor jisim180
nombor neutron108
jisim atom relatif
179.946559537 ± 0.000001525 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
35.08 ± 0.33
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1934
parity+

181Hf

Nombor jisim181
nombor neutron109
jisim atom relatif
180.949110834 ± 0.000001527 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
42.39 ± 0.06 d
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1935
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

182Hf

Nombor jisim182
nombor neutron110
jisim atom relatif
181.950563684 ± 0.000006619 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8.9 ± 0.09 My
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1961
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

183Hf

Nombor jisim183
nombor neutron111
jisim atom relatif
182.953533203 ± 0.000032251 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.018 ± 0.002 h
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1956
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

184Hf

Nombor jisim184
nombor neutron112
jisim atom relatif
183.955448507 ± 0.000042625 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.12 ± 0.05 h
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1973
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

185Hf

Nombor jisim185
nombor neutron113
jisim atom relatif
184.958862 ± 0.000069 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.5 ± 0.6 m
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1993
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

186Hf

Nombor jisim186
nombor neutron114
jisim atom relatif
185.960897 ± 0.000055 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.6 ± 1.2 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1998
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

187Hf

Nombor jisim187
nombor neutron115
jisim atom relatif
186.964573 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1999
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)

188Hf

Nombor jisim188
nombor neutron116
jisim atom relatif
187.966903 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1999
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)

189Hf

Nombor jisim189
nombor neutron117
jisim atom relatif
188.970853 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2009
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

190Hf

Nombor jisim190
nombor neutron118
jisim atom relatif
189.973376 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2012
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
Hf-crystal bar
Hafnium

sejarah

penemu atau perekaDirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy
tempat penemuanDenmark
tarikh penemuan1923
EtimologiFrom Hafnia, the Latin name of Copenhagen.
sebutanHAF-ni-em (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (lautan)
0.000007 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0.000017 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000007 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.3984
2p4.4012
2s18.8102
3d13.5702
3p21.0168
3s21.6885
4d36.476
4f39.7904
4p34.0704
4s33.0228
5d55.3805
5p52.415
5s50.167
6s62.8356