Гафний

Гафний (Hf)

element with the atomic number of 72
Atomic Number72
Atomic Weight178.49
Адади массавӣ180
Group4
Period6
Blockd
proton72 p+
neutron108 n0
electron72 e-
Animated Bohr model of Hf (Гафний)

Хусусияти Физикӣ

Atomic Radius
155 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
152 pm
Metallic Radius
144 pm
ionic radius
58 pm
Crystal Radius
72 pm
Van der Waals radius
223 pm
зичӣ
13,3 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Гафний0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

энергия
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
6,82507 eV/particle
ionization energy of Hf (Гафний)
enthalpy of vaporization
575 kJ/mol
гармои гудозиш
25,1 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
618,4 kJ/mol
electron
Абри электронӣ2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
Bohr model: Hf (Гафний)
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Hf (Гафний)
electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d2 6s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Hf (Гафний)
Orbital Diagram of Hf (Гафний)
oxidation number-2, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
electronegativity
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
0,8583981383413326 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
4 873,15 K
Melting Point
2 506,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
Ранг
Gray
appearancesteel gray
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0,0000059 1/K
molar heat capacity
25,73 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
навъConductor
electrical conductivity
3,3 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,0000003 m Ω
superconductivity
0,128 K
magnetism
навъparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0,0000000053 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0,000000000946 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0,0000705
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
сохт
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3,2 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
5,5 MPa
bulk modulus
110 GPa
shear modulus
30 GPa
Young's modulus
78 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0,37
speed of sound
3 010 m/s
classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIVA
IUPAC GroupIVB
Glawe Number50
Mendeleev Number45
Pettifor Number50
Geochemical Classhigh field strength
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
103 ± 6 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
104
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,02
ададҳои квантӣ3F2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Hafnium

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes33
Natural Isotopes6
Isotopic Composition18035.08%18035.08%17827.28%17827.28%17718.60%17718.60%17913.62%17913.62%1765.26%1765.26%1740.16%1740.16%

153Hf

Адади массавӣ153
neutron number81
relative atomic mass
152,970692 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф2000
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

154Hf

Адади массавӣ154
neutron number82
relative atomic mass
153,964863 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2 ± 1 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1981
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0%

155Hf

Адади массавӣ155
neutron number83
relative atomic mass
154,963167 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
843 ± 30 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1981
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

156Hf

Адади массавӣ156
neutron number84
relative atomic mass
155,959399083 ± 0,000160752 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
23 ± 1 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1979
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

157Hf

Адади массавӣ157
neutron number85
relative atomic mass
156,958288 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
115 ± 1 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1965
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)94%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)14%

158Hf

Адади массавӣ158
neutron number86
relative atomic mass
157,954801217 ± 0,00001878 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,85 ± 0,07 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1965
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)55.7%
α (α emission)44.3%

159Hf

Адади массавӣ159
neutron number87
relative atomic mass
158,953995837 ± 0,000018049 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
5,2 ± 0,1 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1973
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)65%
α (α emission)35%

160Hf

Адади массавӣ160
neutron number88
relative atomic mass
159,950682728 ± 0,000010241 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
13,6 ± 0,2 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.3%
α (α emission)0.7%

161Hf

Адади массавӣ161
neutron number89
relative atomic mass
160,950277927 ± 0,000025174 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18,4 ± 0,4 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1973
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.71%
α (α emission)0.29%

162Hf

Адади массавӣ162
neutron number90
relative atomic mass
161,947215526 ± 0,00000961 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
39,4 ± 0,9 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1982
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.992%
α (α emission)0.008%

163Hf

Адади массавӣ163
neutron number91
relative atomic mass
162,947107211 ± 0,000027582 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
40 ± 0,6 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1982
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)

164Hf

Адади массавӣ164
neutron number92
relative atomic mass
163,944370709 ± 0,000016975 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
111 ± 8 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1981
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

165Hf

Адади массавӣ165
neutron number93
relative atomic mass
164,944567 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
76 ± 4 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1981
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

166Hf

Адади массавӣ166
neutron number94
relative atomic mass
165,94218 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
6,77 ± 0,3 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1965
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

167Hf

Адади массавӣ167
neutron number95
relative atomic mass
166,9426 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,05 ± 0,05 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1969
parity

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

168Hf

Адади массавӣ168
neutron number96
relative atomic mass
167,940568 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
25,95 ± 0,2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1961
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)98%
e+ (positron emission)2%

169Hf

Адади массавӣ169
neutron number97
relative atomic mass
168,941259 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3,24 ± 0,04 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1969
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

170Hf

Адади массавӣ170
neutron number98
relative atomic mass
169,939609 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
16,01 ± 0,13 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1961
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

171Hf

Адади массавӣ171
neutron number99
relative atomic mass
170,940492 ± 0,000031 Da
g-factor
-0,19257142857143 ± 0,0034285714285714
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
12,1 ± 0,4 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,46 ± 0,03
таърихи кашф1951
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

172Hf

Адади массавӣ172
neutron number100
relative atomic mass
171,939449716 ± 0,000026224 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,87 ± 0,03 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1951
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

173Hf

Адади массавӣ173
neutron number101
relative atomic mass
172,940513 ± 0,00003 Da
g-factor
1,004 ± 0,014
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
23,6 ± 0,1 h
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1951
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

174Hf

Адади массавӣ174
neutron number102
relative atomic mass
173,940048377 ± 0,000002425 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0,16 ± 0,12
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2 ± 0,4 Py
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

175Hf

Адади массавӣ175
neutron number103
relative atomic mass
174,941511424 ± 0,00000245 Da
g-factor
-0,2708 ± 0,0036
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
70,65 ± 0,19 d
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
2,72 ± 0,02
таърихи кашф1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

176Hf

Адади массавӣ176
neutron number104
relative atomic mass
175,941409797 ± 0,000001591 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
5,26 ± 0,7
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1934
parity+

177Hf

Адади массавӣ177
neutron number105
relative atomic mass
176,943230187 ± 0,000001514 Da
g-factor
0,226 ± 0,00025714285714286
natural abundance
18,6 ± 0,16
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,37 ± 0,03
таърихи кашф1934
parity-

178Hf

Адади массавӣ178
neutron number106
relative atomic mass
177,943708322 ± 0,000001519 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27,28 ± 0,28
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1934
parity+

179Hf

Адади массавӣ179
neutron number107
relative atomic mass
178,945825705 ± 0,00000152 Da
g-factor
-0,14197777777778 ± 0,00031111111111111
natural abundance
13,62 ± 0,11
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,79 ± 0,03
таърихи кашф1934
parity+

180Hf

Адади массавӣ180
neutron number108
relative atomic mass
179,946559537 ± 0,000001525 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
35,08 ± 0,33
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1934
parity+

181Hf

Адади массавӣ181
neutron number109
relative atomic mass
180,949110834 ± 0,000001527 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
42,39 ± 0,06 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1935
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

182Hf

Адади массавӣ182
neutron number110
relative atomic mass
181,950563684 ± 0,000006619 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
8,9 ± 0,09 My
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1961
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

183Hf

Адади массавӣ183
neutron number111
relative atomic mass
182,953533203 ± 0,000032251 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,018 ± 0,002 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1956
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

184Hf

Адади массавӣ184
neutron number112
relative atomic mass
183,955448507 ± 0,000042625 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4,12 ± 0,05 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

185Hf

Адади массавӣ185
neutron number113
relative atomic mass
184,958862 ± 0,000069 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3,5 ± 0,6 m
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1993
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

186Hf

Адади массавӣ186
neutron number114
relative atomic mass
185,960897 ± 0,000055 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,6 ± 1,2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1998
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

187Hf

Адади массавӣ187
neutron number115
relative atomic mass
186,964573 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1999
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)

188Hf

Адади массавӣ188
neutron number116
relative atomic mass
187,966903 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1999
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)

189Hf

Адади массавӣ189
neutron number117
relative atomic mass
188,970853 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф2009
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

190Hf

Адади массавӣ190
neutron number118
relative atomic mass
189,973376 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф2012
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
Hf-crystal bar
Hafnium

таърих

кошифDirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy
макони кашфDenmark
таърихи кашф1923
РешашиносӣFrom Hafnia, the Latin name of Copenhagen.
pronunciationHAF-ni-em (Англисӣ)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (Уқёнус)
0,000007 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0,000017 %
natural abundance (Офтоб)
0,0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00000007 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.3984
2p4.4012
2s18.8102
3d13.5702
3p21.0168
3s21.6885
4d36.476
4f39.7904
4p34.0704
4s33.0228
5d55.3805
5p52.415
5s50.167
6s62.8356