Mercury

Mercury (Hg)

Heavy silvery liquid metallic element, belongs to the zinc group. Used in thermometers, barometers and other scientific apparatus. Less reactive than zinc and cadmium, does not displace hydrogen from acids. Forms a number of complexes and organomercury compounds.
Atomic Number80
Atomic Weight200.592
Mass Number202
Group12
Period6
Blockd
Protons80 p+
Neutrons122 n0
Electrons80 e-
Mercury-element.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
150 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
133 pm
Metallic Radius
139 pm
Ionic Radius
97 pm
Crystal Radius
111.00000000000001 pm
Van der Waals radius
223 pm
Density
13.5336 g/cm³
Boiling Point
629.73 K
Melting Point
234.28 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2
Electronegativity
1.9
Electrophilicity
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
10.437504 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
58.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
2.295 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
61.38 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
27.983 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
33.91 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States1, 2, 4
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureSimple Trigonal (RHL)
Lattice Constant
2.99 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseLiquid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIIB
IUPAC GroupIIB
Glawe Number76
Mendeleev Number79
Pettifor Number74
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.085 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00003 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe1×10-7%

Isotopes of Mercury

Stable Isotopes
196Hg 198Hg 199Hg 200Hg 201Hg 202Hg 204Hg
Unstable Isotopes
171Hg 172Hg 173Hg 174Hg 175Hg 176Hg 177Hg 178Hg 179Hg 180Hg 181Hg 182Hg 183Hg 184Hg 185Hg 186Hg 187Hg 188Hg 189Hg 190Hg 191Hg 192Hg 193Hg 194Hg 195Hg 197Hg 203Hg 205Hg 206Hg 207Hg 208Hg 209Hg 210Hg

History

Mercury was known to the ancient Chinese and Indians and has been found in Egyptian tombs dating back to about 1500 BC. Alchemists thought of mercury as the First Matter from which all metals were formed. They believed that different metals could be produced by varying the quality and quantity of sulfur contained within the mercury. From the Latin word hydrargyrum meaning liquid silver

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Name OriginFrom the Roman god Mercury; symbol from Latin: hydrargyrus (liquid silver).
Mercury and most of its compounds are highly toxic
Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature

Uses

Mercury is used in barometers and manometers because of its high density. Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapor lamps and some 'neon sign' type advertising signs and fluorescent lamps. Mercury is also found in liquid mirror telescopes. Gaseous mercury is also found in some electron tubes, including ignitrons, thyratrons, and mercury arc rectifiers. Used in thermometers, barometers, and batteries. Also used in electrical switches and mercury-vapor lighting products.

Sources

Virtually all mercury comes from cinnabar or mercury sulfide (HgS). Some sources of red cinnabar are so rich in mercury that droplets of elemental mercury can be found in random samples.