Mercury

Mercury (Hg)

Heavy silvery liquid metallic element, belongs to the zinc group. Used in thermometers, barometers and other scientific apparatus. Less reactive than zinc and cadmium, does not displace hydrogen from acids. Forms a number of complexes and organomercury compounds.
Atomic Number80
Atomic Weight200.592
Mass Number202
Group12
Period6
Blockd
Protons80 p+
Neutrons122 n0
Electrons80 e-
Mercury-element.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Hg (Mercury) Enhanced Bohr Model of Hg (Mercury) Bohr Model: Hg (Mercury) Orbital Diagram of Hg (Mercury)

Properties

Atomic Radius
150 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
133 pm
Metallic Radius
139 pm
Ionic Radius
97 pm
Crystal Radius
111 pm
Van der Waals Radius
223 pm
Density
13.5336 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
10.437504 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
58.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
2.295 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
61.38 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2
Valence Electrons2
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
Oxidation States-2, 1, 2
Electronegativity
1.9
Electrophilicity
Phases
PhaseLiquid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
629.769 K
Melting Point
234.321 K
Critical Pressure
167 MPa
Critical Temperature
1,764.15 K
Triple Point
234.3156 K
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery
Refractive Index
1.000933
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.000181 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
27.983 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
1 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000096 m Ω
Superconducting Point
4.154 K
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000021 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000421 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000284
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Trigonal (RHL)
Lattice Constant
2.99 Å
Lattice Angles1.23081, 1.23081, 1.23081
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
25 GPa
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
1,407 m/s
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIIB
IUPAC GroupIIB
Glawe Number76
Mendeleev Number79
Pettifor Number74
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
33.91 ± 0.34 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
374
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.063
Quantum Numbers1S0
Space Group166 (R_3m)

Isotopes of Mercury

Stable Isotopes7
Unstable Isotopes40
Radioactive Isotopes40

170Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
170.005814 ± 0.000324 Da
Mass Number170
G-Factor
0
Half Life
310 ± 250 us
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2019
Parity+

170Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

171Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
171.003585 ± 0.000329 Da
Mass Number171
G-Factor
Half Life
70 ± 30 us
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2004
Parity-

171Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

172Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
171.998860581 ± 0.000161098 Da
Mass Number172
G-Factor
0
Half Life
231 ± 9 us
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1999
Parity+

172Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

173Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
172.997143 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number173
G-Factor
Half Life
800 ± 80 us
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1999
Parity-

173Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

174Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
173.992870575 ± 0.000020623 Da
Mass Number174
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2 ± 0.4 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

174Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

175Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
174.991444451 ± 0.000087047 Da
Mass Number175
G-Factor
Half Life
10.2 ± 0.3 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity-

175Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

176Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
175.98734867 ± 0.000011936 Da
Mass Number176
G-Factor
0
Half Life
20.3 ± 1.4 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

176Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)90%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

177Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
176.98628459 ± 0.000090952 Da
Mass Number177
G-Factor
-0.29142857142857 ± 0.014285714285714
Half Life
117 ± 7 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1975
Parity-

177Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

178Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
177.982484756 ± 0.000011548 Da
Mass Number178
G-Factor
0
Half Life
266.5 ± 2.4 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

178Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)89%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

179Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
178.981821759 ± 0.000030188 Da
Mass Number179
G-Factor
-0.26857142857143 ± 0.0057142857142857
Half Life
1.05 ± 0.03 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity-

179Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)75%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)25%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.15%

180Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
179.97826018 ± 0.000013574 Da
Mass Number180
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.59 ± 0.01 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

180Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)52%
α (α emission)48%

181Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
180.977819368 ± 0.000016513 Da
Mass Number181
G-Factor
Half Life
3.6 ± 0.1 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1969
Parity-

181Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)73%
α (α emission)27%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.014%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)9%

182Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
181.974689173 ± 0.00001051 Da
Mass Number182
G-Factor
0
Half Life
10.83 ± 0.06 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1968
Parity+

182Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)86.2%
α (α emission)13.8%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)1%

183Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
182.974444652 ± 0.000007604 Da
Mass Number183
G-Factor
Half Life
9.4 ± 0.7 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1969
Parity-

183Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)88.3%
α (α emission)11.7%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2.6%

184Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
183.971717709 ± 0.000010235 Da
Mass Number184
G-Factor
0
Half Life
30.87 ± 0.26 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

184Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)98.89%
α (α emission)1.11%

185Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
184.971890696 ± 0.000014641 Da
Mass Number185
G-Factor
Half Life
49.1 ± 1 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1960
Parity-

185Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)94%
α (α emission)6%

186Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
185.969362061 ± 0.000012507 Da
Mass Number186
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.38 ± 0.06 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1960
Parity+

186Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.016%

187Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
186.96981354 ± 0.00001381 Da
Mass Number187
G-Factor
Half Life
1.9 ± 0.3 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1960
Parity-

187Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)%

188Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
187.967580738 ± 0.000007285 Da
Mass Number188
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.25 ± 0.15 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1960
Parity+

188Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)3.7%

189Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
188.968194776 ± 0.000033873 Da
Mass Number189
G-Factor
Half Life
7.6 ± 0.2 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1955
Parity-

189Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)%

190Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
189.96632225 ± 0.000017076 Da
Mass Number190
G-Factor
0
Half Life
20 ± 0.5 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1959
Parity+

190Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)%

191Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
190.967158301 ± 0.000023918 Da
Mass Number191
G-Factor
Half Life
49 ± 10 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1954
Parity-

191Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)%

192Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
191.965634263 ± 0.000016679 Da
Mass Number192
G-Factor
0
Half Life
4.85 ± 0.2 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1952
Parity+

192Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%
α (α emission)%

193Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
192.966653395 ± 0.000016645 Da
Mass Number193
G-Factor
-0.41673333333333 ± 0.00053333333333333
Half Life
3.8 ± 0.15 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.7 ± 0.3
Discovery Year1952
Parity-

193Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

194Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
193.965449108 ± 0.0000031 Da
Mass Number194
G-Factor
0
Half Life
447 ± 28 y
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1962
Parity+

194Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

195Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
194.966705809 ± 0.000024843 Da
Mass Number195
G-Factor
1.0786 ± 0.0012
Half Life
10.69 ± 0.16 h
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1952
Parity-

195Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

196Hg

Abundance
0.15 ± 0.01
Relative Atomic Mass
195.965833445 ± 0.000003163 Da
Mass Number196
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1930
Parity+

196Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
+ (double β+ decay)%

197Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
196.967213715 ± 0.000003442 Da
Mass Number197
G-Factor
1.0506 ± 0.0012
Half Life
64.93 ± 0.07 h
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1941
Parity-

197Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

198Hg

Abundance
10.04 ± 0.03
Relative Atomic Mass
197.966769177 ± 0.000000491 Da
Mass Number198
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1925
Parity+

199Hg

Abundance
16.94 ± 0.12
Relative Atomic Mass
198.968280994 ± 0.000000564 Da
Mass Number199
G-Factor
1.0078 ± 0.0012
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1925
Parity-

200Hg

Abundance
23.14 ± 0.09
Relative Atomic Mass
199.968326941 ± 0.000000568 Da
Mass Number200
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1925
Parity+

201Hg

Abundance
13.17 ± 0.09
Relative Atomic Mass
200.970303054 ± 0.000000763 Da
Mass Number201
G-Factor
-0.372 ± 0.00046666666666667
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1925
Parity-

202Hg

Abundance
29.74 ± 0.13
Relative Atomic Mass
201.970643604 ± 0.000000757 Da
Mass Number202
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

203Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
202.972872396 ± 0.00000175 Da
Mass Number203
G-Factor
Half Life
46.61 ± 0.01 d
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.344 ± 0.007
Discovery Year1943
Parity-

203Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

204Hg

Abundance
6.82 ± 0.04
Relative Atomic Mass
203.973494037 ± 0.000000534 Da
Mass Number204
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

204Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%

205Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
204.976073151 ± 0.000003923 Da
Mass Number205
G-Factor
Half Life
5.14 ± 0.09 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1940
Parity-

205Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

206Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
205.977513837 ± 0.000021943 Da
Mass Number206
G-Factor
0
Half Life
8.32 ± 0.07 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

206Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

207Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
206.9823 ± 0.000032 Da
Mass Number207
G-Factor
Half Life
2.9 ± 0.2 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1982
Parity+

207Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

208Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
207.985759 ± 0.000033 Da
Mass Number208
G-Factor
0
Half Life
135 ± 10 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

208Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

209Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
208.990757 ± 0.000161 Da
Mass Number209
G-Factor
Half Life
6.3 ± 1.1 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1998
Parity+

209Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

210Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
209.99431 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number210
G-Factor
0
Half Life
64 ± 12 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1998
Parity+

210Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2.2%

211Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
210.999581 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number211
G-Factor
Half Life
26.4 ± 8.1 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

211Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)6.3%

212Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
212.003242 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number212
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

212Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

213Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
213.008803 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number213
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

213Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

214Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
214.012636 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number214
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

214Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

215Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
215.018368 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number215
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

215Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

216Hg

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
216.022459 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number216
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

216Hg Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

History

Mercury was known to the ancient Chinese and Indians and has been found in Egyptian tombs dating back to about 1500 BC. Alchemists thought of mercury as the First Matter from which all metals were formed. They believed that different metals could be produced by varying the quality and quantity of sulfur contained within the mercury. From the Latin word hydrargyrum meaning liquid silver

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Etymology (Name Origin)From the Roman god Mercury; symbol from Latin: hydrargyrus (liquid silver).
PronunciationMER-kyoo-ri (English)
Mercury and most of its compounds are highly toxic
Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature

Uses

Mercury is used in barometers and manometers because of its high density. Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapor lamps and some 'neon sign' type advertising signs and fluorescent lamps. Mercury is also found in liquid mirror telescopes. Gaseous mercury is also found in some electron tubes, including ignitrons, thyratrons, and mercury arc rectifiers. Used in thermometers, barometers, and batteries. Also used in electrical switches and mercury-vapor lighting products.

Sources

Virtually all mercury comes from cinnabar or mercury sulfide (HgS). Some sources of red cinnabar are so rich in mercury that droplets of elemental mercury can be found in random samples.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.085 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00003 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.000025 %
Abundance in Sun
0.000002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.5419
2p4.499
2s20.8906
3d13.4804
3p22.4798
3s23.4587
4d37.532
4f38.2392
4p35.594
4s34.7552
5d59.144
5p54.033
5s51.889
6s68.8466