Indium

Indium (In)

Soft silvery element belonging to group 13 of the periodic table. The most common natural isotope is In-115, which has a half-life of 6*10^4 years. Five other radioisotopes exist. Discovered in 1863 by Reich and Richter.
Atomic Number49
Atomic Weight114.818
Mass Number115
Group13
Period5
Blockp
Protons49 p+
Neutrons66 n0
Electrons49 e-
Indium wetting glass.jpg Animated Bohr Model of In (Indium) Enhanced Bohr Model of In (Indium) Bohr Model: In (Indium) Orbital Diagram of In (Indium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
155 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
142 pm
Metallic Radius
142 pm
Ionic Radius
62 pm
Crystal Radius
76 pm
Van der Waals Radius
193 pm
Density
7.31 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
5.7863552 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
225.1 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
3.24 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
243 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 18, 3
Valence Electrons3
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
Oxidation States-5, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3
Electronegativity
1.78
Electrophilicity
0.8439965667135223 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
2,300.15 K
Melting Point
429.7485 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
429.7436 K
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery lustrous gray
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
81.8 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.0000321 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
26.74 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.233 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
12 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000008000000000001 m Ω
Superconducting Point
3.41 K
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000014 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000161 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000102
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureCentered Tetragonal (TET)
Lattice Constant
4.59 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
1.2 MPa
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
11 GPa
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
1,215 m/s
Classification
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIIIB
IUPAC GroupIIIA
Glawe Number80
Mendeleev Number84
Pettifor Number79
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
65 ± 4 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
779 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
194
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.06
Quantum Numbers2P1/2
Space Group139 (I4/mmm)

Isotopes of Indium

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes40
Radioactive Isotopes41

96In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
95.959109 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number96
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2016
Parity

96In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
p (proton emission)%

97In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
96.949125 ± 0.00043 Da
Mass Number97
G-Factor
Half Life
36 ± 6 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2011
Parity+

97In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2.3%
p (proton emission)%

98In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
97.942129 ± 0.000327 Da
Mass Number98
G-Factor
0
Half Life
30 ± 1 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

98In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.13%

99In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
98.93411 ± 0.00032 Da
Mass Number99
G-Factor
Half Life
3.11 ± 0.06 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

99In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.29%

100In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
99.931101929 ± 0.0000024 Da
Mass Number100
G-Factor
Half Life
5.62 ± 0.06 s
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1982
Parity+

100In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)1.66%

101In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
100.926414025 ± 0.000012519 Da
Mass Number101
G-Factor
Half Life
15.1 ± 1.1 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1988
Parity+

101In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)1.7%

102In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
101.924105911 ± 0.000004909 Da
Mass Number102
G-Factor
Half Life
23.3 ± 0.1 s
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

102In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.0093%

103In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
102.91987883 ± 0.00000964 Da
Mass Number103
G-Factor
Half Life
60 ± 1 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

103In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

104In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
103.918214538 ± 0.0000062 Da
Mass Number104
G-Factor
0.886 ± 0.004
Half Life
1.8 ± 0.03 m
Spin5
Quadrupole Moment
0.63 ± 0.1
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

104In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

105In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
104.914502322 ± 0.000011 Da
Mass Number105
G-Factor
1.2593333333333 ± 0.0011111111111111
Half Life
5.07 ± 0.07 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.79 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1975
Parity+

105In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

106In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
105.913463596 ± 0.000013125 Da
Mass Number106
G-Factor
0.70114285714286 ± 0.001
Half Life
6.2 ± 0.1 m
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
0.92 ± 0.06
Discovery Year1962
Parity+

106In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

107In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
106.910287497 ± 0.000010363 Da
Mass Number107
G-Factor
1.2393333333333 ± 0.0017777777777778
Half Life
32.4 ± 0.3 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.77 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

107In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

108In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
107.909693654 ± 0.000009276 Da
Mass Number108
G-Factor
0.65057142857143 ± 0.00042857142857143
Half Life
58 ± 1.2 m
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
0.957 ± 0.007
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

108In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

109In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
108.907149679 ± 0.000004261 Da
Mass Number109
G-Factor
1.2288888888889 ± 0.00088888888888889
Half Life
4.159 ± 0.01 h
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.8 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1948
Parity+

109In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

110In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
109.907170674 ± 0.000012402 Da
Mass Number110
G-Factor
0.67228571428571 ± 0.0011428571428571
Half Life
4.92 ± 0.08 h
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
0.32 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1939
Parity+

110In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

111In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
110.905107236 ± 0.000003675 Da
Mass Number111
G-Factor
1.2211111111111 ± 0.0015555555555556
Half Life
2.8048 ± 0.0001 d
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.76 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1947
Parity+

111In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

112In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
111.905538718 ± 0.000004563 Da
Mass Number112
G-Factor
2.82 ± 0.03
Half Life
14.88 ± 0.15 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.082 ± 0.005
Discovery Year1947
Parity+

112In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)62%
β (β decay)38%

113In

Abundance
4.281 ± 0.052
Relative Atomic Mass
112.904060451 ± 0.000000202 Da
Mass Number113
G-Factor
1.2268444444444 ± 0.000088888888888889
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

114In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
113.904916405 ± 0.000000323 Da
Mass Number114
G-Factor
2.813 ± 0.014
Half Life
71.9 ± 0.1 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

114In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)99.5%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)0.5%

115In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
95.719 ± 0.052
Relative Atomic Mass
114.903878772 ± 0.000000012 Da
Mass Number115
G-Factor
1.2294666666667 ± 0.000088888888888889
Half Life
441 ± 25 Ty
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1924
Parity+

115In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

116In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
115.905259992 ± 0.000000236 Da
Mass Number116
G-Factor
2.7826 ± 0.0008
Half Life
14.1 ± 0.03 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

116In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
ϵ (electron capture)0.0237%

117In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
116.904515729 ± 0.000005239 Da
Mass Number117
G-Factor
1.2246666666667 ± 0.00088888888888889
Half Life
43.2 ± 0.3 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.79 ± 0.01
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

117In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

118In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
117.906356705 ± 0.000008322 Da
Mass Number118
G-Factor
Half Life
5 ± 0.5 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

118In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

119In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
118.905851622 ± 0.000007847 Da
Mass Number119
G-Factor
1.2237777777778 ± 0.0022222222222222
Half Life
2.4 ± 0.1 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.814 ± 0.007
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

119In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

120In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
119.907967489 ± 0.000042953 Da
Mass Number120
G-Factor
Half Life
3.08 ± 0.08 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1958
Parity+

120In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

121In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
120.907852778 ± 0.000029435 Da
Mass Number121
G-Factor
1.2208888888889 ± 0.0011111111111111
Half Life
23.1 ± 0.6 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.776 ± 0.01
Discovery Year1960
Parity+

121In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

122In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
121.910282458 ± 0.000053741 Da
Mass Number122
G-Factor
Half Life
1.5 ± 0.3 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1963
Parity+

122In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

123In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
122.910435252 ± 0.00002129 Da
Mass Number123
G-Factor
1.2184444444444 ± 0.0015555555555556
Half Life
6.17 ± 0.05 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.722 ± 0.009
Discovery Year1960
Parity+

123In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

124In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
123.913184873 ± 0.000032808 Da
Mass Number124
G-Factor
1.3456666666667 ± 0.0036666666666667
Half Life
3.12 ± 0.09 s
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
0.58 ± 0.07
Discovery Year1964
Parity+

124In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

125In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
124.913673841 ± 0.0000019 Da
Mass Number125
G-Factor
1.2208888888889 ± 0.002
Half Life
2.36 ± 0.04 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.68 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

125In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

126In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
125.916468202 ± 0.0000045 Da
Mass Number126
G-Factor
1.3426666666667 ± 0.0036666666666667
Half Life
1.53 ± 0.01 s
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
0.47 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

126In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

127In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
126.91746604 ± 0.000010736 Da
Mass Number127
G-Factor
1.2253333333333 ± 0.0017777777777778
Half Life
1.086 ± 0.007 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.56 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1975
Parity+

127In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.03%

128In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
127.920353637 ± 0.000001419 Da
Mass Number128
G-Factor
Half Life
816 ± 27 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1975
Parity

128In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.038%

129In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
128.921808534 ± 0.000002116 Da
Mass Number129
G-Factor
Half Life
570 ± 10 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1975
Parity+

129In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.23%

130In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
129.924952257 ± 0.000001921 Da
Mass Number130
G-Factor
Half Life
273 ± 5 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1973
Parity

130In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.93%

131In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
130.926972839 ± 0.000002367 Da
Mass Number131
G-Factor
Half Life
261.5 ± 2.8 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1976
Parity+

131In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2.25%

132In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
131.932998444 ± 0.000064447 Da
Mass Number132
G-Factor
Half Life
202.2 ± 0.2 ms
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1973
Parity-

132In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12.3%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

133In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
132.938067 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number133
G-Factor
Half Life
163 ± 1.6 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1996
Parity+

133In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)90%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

134In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
133.944208 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number134
G-Factor
Half Life
136 ± 4 ms
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1996
Parity-

134In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)65%
2n (2-neutron emission)4%

135In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
134.949425 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number135
G-Factor
Half Life
103 ± 3 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2002
Parity+

135In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

136In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
135.956017 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number136
G-Factor
Half Life
86 ± 9 ms
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2015
Parity-

136In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

137In

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
136.961535 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number137
G-Factor
Half Life
70 ± 40 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2015
Parity+

137In Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

History

Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter first identified indium in sphalerite by its bright indigo-blue spectroscopic emission line. As no element was known with a bright blue emission they concluded that a new element was present in the minerals. Richter went on to isolate the metal in 1864. From the brilliant indigo line in its spectrum

DiscoverersFerdinand Reich, T. Richter
Discovery LocationGermany
Discovery Year1863
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: indicum (color indigo), the color it shows in a spectroscope.
PronunciationIN-di-em (English)
Indium is considered to be of low toxicity
When it is bent, indium emits a high-pitched 'cry'

Uses

Indium's current primary application is to form transparent electrodes from indium tin oxide in liquid crystal displays and touchscreens. It is widely used in thin-films to form lubricated layers. It is also used for making particularly low melting point alloys, and is a component in some lead-free solders. Used to coat high speed bearings and as an alloy that lowers the melting point of other metals. Relativly small amounts are used in dental items and in electronic semiconductors.

Sources

Found in certain zinc ores.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.25 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.02 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.0000044 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0000004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000003 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.9903
2p4.102
2s12.8764
3d14.3218
3p17.4793
3s17.3692
4d32.0584
4p28.6312
4s27.2388
5p40.53
5s39.4885