Tin

Tin (Sn)

Silvery malleable metallic element belonging to group 14 of the periodic table. Twenty-six isotopes are known, five of which are radioactive. Chemically reactive. Combines directly with chlorine and oxygen and displaces hydrogen from dilute acids.
Atomic Number50
Atomic Weight118.71
Mass Number120
Group14
Period5
Blockp
Protons50 p+
Neutrons70 n0
Electrons50 e-
Cín.PNG Animated Bohr Model of Sn (Tin) Enhanced Bohr Model of Sn (Tin) Bohr Model: Sn (Tin) Orbital Diagram of Sn (Tin)

Properties

Atomic Radius
145 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
140 pm
Metallic Radius
142 pm
Ionic Radius
55 pm
Crystal Radius
69 pm
Van der Waals Radius
217 pm
Density
7.287 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
1.112067 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
7.343917 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
296 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
7.07 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
301.2 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 18, 4
Valence Electrons4
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Oxidation States-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegativity
1.96
Electrophilicity
1.434238336293717 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
2,859.15 K
Melting Point
286.35 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery-white (beta, β) or gray (alpha, α)
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
66.8 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.000022 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
26.99 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.227 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
9.1 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000011 m Ω
Superconducting Point
3.72 K
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000031 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000368 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000227
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureCentered Tetragonal (TET)
Lattice Constant
5.82 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
1.5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
58 GPa
Shear Modulus
18 GPa
Young Modulus
50 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.36
Speed of Sound
2,500 m/s
Classification
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number83
Mendeleev Number90
Pettifor Number83
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
53 ± 6 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
659 a₀
AllotropesWhite Tin, Gray Tin
Neutron Cross Section
0.62
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0002
Quantum Numbers3P0
Space Group141 (I41/amd)

Isotopes of Tin

Stable Isotopes10
Unstable Isotopes32
Radioactive Isotopes32

99Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
98.948495 ± 0.000625 Da
Mass Number99
G-Factor
Half Life
24 ± 4 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2011
Parity+

99Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)5%

100Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
99.938648944 ± 0.000257661 Da
Mass Number100
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.18 ± 0.08 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

100Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)17%

101Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
100.935259252 ± 0.000322068 Da
Mass Number101
G-Factor
Half Life
2.22 ± 0.05 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

101Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)21%

102Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
101.930289525 ± 0.000107466 Da
Mass Number102
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.8 ± 0.2 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

102Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

103Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
102.927973 ± 0.000108 Da
Mass Number103
G-Factor
Half Life
7 ± 0.2 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

103Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)1.2%

104Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
103.923105195 ± 0.000006167 Da
Mass Number104
G-Factor
0
Half Life
20.8 ± 0.5 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

104Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

105Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
104.921268421 ± 0.000004263 Da
Mass Number105
G-Factor
Half Life
32.7 ± 0.5 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

105Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

106Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
105.916957394 ± 0.000005465 Da
Mass Number106
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.92 ± 0.08 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1975
Parity+

106Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

107Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
106.915713649 ± 0.0000057 Da
Mass Number107
G-Factor
Half Life
2.9 ± 0.05 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1976
Parity+

107Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

108Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
107.91189429 ± 0.000005778 Da
Mass Number108
G-Factor
0
Half Life
10.3 ± 0.08 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1968
Parity+

108Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

109Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
108.911292857 ± 0.000008533 Da
Mass Number109
G-Factor
-0.4312 ± 0.0024
Half Life
18.1 ± 0.2 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.33 ± 0.11
Discovery Year1966
Parity+

109Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

110Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
109.907844835 ± 0.00001479 Da
Mass Number110
G-Factor
0
Half Life
4.154 ± 0.004 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1965
Parity+

110Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

111Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
110.907741143 ± 0.000005728 Da
Mass Number111
G-Factor
0.17342857142857 ± 0.0011428571428571
Half Life
35.3 ± 0.6 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.2 ± 0.1
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

111Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

112Sn

Abundance
0.97 ± 0.01
Relative Atomic Mass
111.904824894 ± 0.000000315 Da
Mass Number112
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1927
Parity+

112Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
+ (double β+ decay)%

113Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
112.905175857 ± 0.00000169 Da
Mass Number113
G-Factor
-1.7554 ± 0.0016
Half Life
115.08 ± 0.04 d
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1939
Parity+

113Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

114Sn

Abundance
0.66 ± 0.01
Relative Atomic Mass
113.90278013 ± 0.000000031 Da
Mass Number114
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1927
Parity+

115Sn

Abundance
0.34 ± 0.01
Relative Atomic Mass
114.903344695 ± 0.000000016 Da
Mass Number115
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1927
Parity+

116Sn

Abundance
14.54 ± 0.09
Relative Atomic Mass
115.901742825 ± 0.000000103 Da
Mass Number116
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

117Sn

Abundance
7.68 ± 0.07
Relative Atomic Mass
116.902954036 ± 0.000000518 Da
Mass Number117
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1923
Parity+

118Sn

Abundance
24.22 ± 0.09
Relative Atomic Mass
117.90160663 ± 0.000000536 Da
Mass Number118
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1924
Parity+

119Sn

Abundance
8.59 ± 0.04
Relative Atomic Mass
118.903311266 ± 0.000000778 Da
Mass Number119
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1925
Parity+

120Sn

Abundance
32.58 ± 0.09
Relative Atomic Mass
119.902202557 ± 0.000000987 Da
Mass Number120
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1926
Parity+

121Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
120.904243488 ± 0.00000105 Da
Mass Number121
G-Factor
0.4646 ± 0.00073333333333333
Half Life
27.03 ± 0.04 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.02 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1948
Parity+

121Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

122Sn

Abundance
4.63 ± 0.03
Relative Atomic Mass
121.903445494 ± 0.000002627 Da
Mass Number122
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1928
Parity+

122Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%

123Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
122.905727065 ± 0.000002661 Da
Mass Number123
G-Factor
-0.24876363636364 ± 0.0002
Half Life
129.2 ± 0.4 d
Spin11/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.03 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

123Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

124Sn

Abundance
5.79 ± 0.05
Relative Atomic Mass
123.905279619 ± 0.00000141 Da
Mass Number124
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

124Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%

125Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
124.90778937 ± 0.000001426 Da
Mass Number125
G-Factor
-0.24472727272727 ± 0.00036363636363636
Half Life
9.634 ± 0.015 d
Spin11/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.2 ± 0.2
Discovery Year1939
Parity-

125Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

126Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
125.907658958 ± 0.000011473 Da
Mass Number126
G-Factor
0
Half Life
230 ± 14 ky
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1962
Parity+

126Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

127Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
126.910391726 ± 0.000009904 Da
Mass Number127
G-Factor
-0.24127272727273 ± 0.0012727272727273
Half Life
2.1 ± 0.04 h
Spin11/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.32 ± 0.14
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

127Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

128Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
127.910507828 ± 0.000018982 Da
Mass Number128
G-Factor
0
Half Life
59.07 ± 0.14 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1956
Parity+

128Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

129Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
128.91348244 ± 0.00001854 Da
Mass Number129
G-Factor
0.502 ± 0.002
Half Life
2.23 ± 0.04 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.05 ± 0.12
Discovery Year1962
Parity+

129Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

130Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
129.913974531 ± 0.00000201 Da
Mass Number130
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.72 ± 0.07 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

130Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

131Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
130.917053067 ± 0.000003887 Da
Mass Number131
G-Factor
0.49733333333333 ± 0.0026666666666667
Half Life
56 ± 0.5 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.04 ± 0.09
Discovery Year1963
Parity+

131Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

132Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
131.917823898 ± 0.000002121 Da
Mass Number132
G-Factor
0
Half Life
39.7 ± 0.8 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1963
Parity+

132Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

133Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
132.923913753 ± 0.000002043 Da
Mass Number133
G-Factor
Half Life
1.37 ± 0.07 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1973
Parity-

133Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.0294%

134Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
133.92868043 ± 0.0000034 Da
Mass Number134
G-Factor
0
Half Life
0.93 ± 0.08 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

134Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17%

135Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
134.934908603 ± 0.0000033 Da
Mass Number135
G-Factor
Half Life
515 ± 5 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity-

135Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)21%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

136Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
135.939699 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number136
G-Factor
0
Half Life
355 ± 18 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

136Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)28%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

137Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
136.946162 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number137
G-Factor
Half Life
249 ± 15 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity-

137Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)48%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

138Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
137.951143 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number138
G-Factor
0
Half Life
148 ± 9 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

138Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)36%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

139Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
138.957799 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number139
G-Factor
Half Life
120 ± 38 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2015
Parity-

139Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

140Sn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
139.962973 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number140
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

140Sn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

History

Tin was first smelted in combination with copper around 3500 BC to produce bronze. The oldest artifacts date from around 2000 BC. Cassiterite, the tin oxide form of tin, was most likely the original source of tin in ancient times. British scientist Robert Boyle published a description of his experiments on the oxidation of tin in 1673. The Latin word for tin is stannum

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Etymology (Name Origin)Named after Etruscan god, Tinia; symbol from Latin: stannum (tin).
PronunciationTIN (English)
Tin is considered to be non-toxic but most tin salts are toxic
When a bar of tin is bent, a crackling sound known as the tin cry can be heard

Uses

Tin is used as a coating on the surface of other metals to prevent corrosion. It has long been used as a solder in the form of an alloy with lead. Tin salts sprayed onto glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings. Tin chloride is used as a mordant in dyeing textiles and for increasing the weight of silk. Used as a coating for steel cans since it is nontoxic and noncorrosive. Also in solder (33%Sn:67%Pb), bronze (20%Sn:80%Cu), and pewter. Stannous fluoride (SnF2), a compound of tin and fluorine is used in some toothpaste.

Sources

Principally found in the ore cassiterite(SnO2) and stannine (Cu2FeSnS4).

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
2.3 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.000004 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0.00002 %
Abundance in Meteor
0.00012 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0000009 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000004 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.008
2p4.1146
2s13.1406
3d14.2583
3p17.6468
3s17.5802
4d32.03
4p28.7348
4s27.342
5p40.898
5s39.3715