Ytterbium

Ytterbium (Yb)

Silvery metallic element of the lanthanoids. Seven natural isotopes and ten artificial isotopes are known. Used in certain steels. Discovered by J.D.G. Marignac in 1878.
Atomic Number70
Atomic Weight173.045
Mass Number174
Group
Period6
Blockf
Protons70 p+
Neutrons104 n0
Electrons70 e-
Ytterbium element.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Yb (Ytterbium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Yb (Ytterbium) Bohr Model: Yb (Ytterbium) Orbital Diagram of Yb (Ytterbium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
175 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
170 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
102 pm
Crystal Radius
116 pm
Van der Waals Radius
226 pm
Density
6.9 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
6.25416 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
159 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
3.35 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
155.6 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2
Valence Electrons3
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 6s2
Oxidation States0, 1, 2, 3
Electronegativity
Electrophilicity
0.7743018767771305 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
1,469.15 K
Melting Point
1,097.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearance
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000263 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
26.74 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.155 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
3.6 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000028 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000059 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.00000000102 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0000388
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
5.49 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
31 GPa
Shear Modulus
9.9 GPa
Young Modulus
24 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.21
Speed of Sound
1,590 m/s
Classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number18
Mendeleev Number39
Pettifor Number17
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
139 ± 6 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
35
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0076
Quantum Numbers1S0
Space Group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Ytterbium

Stable Isotopes7
Unstable Isotopes31
Radioactive Isotopes31

148Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
147.967547 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number148
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

148Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

149Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
148.964219 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number149
G-Factor
Half Life
700 ± 200 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2001
Parity+

149Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%

150Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
149.958314 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number150
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2000
Parity+

150Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

151Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
150.955402453 ± 0.000322591 Da
Mass Number151
G-Factor
Half Life
1.6 ± 0.5 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

151Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

152Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
151.950326699 ± 0.000160718 Da
Mass Number152
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.03 ± 0.06 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1982
Parity+

152Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

153Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
152.949372 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number153
G-Factor
Half Life
4.2 ± 0.2 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1977
Parity-

153Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
α (α emission)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.008%

154Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
153.946395696 ± 0.000018551 Da
Mass Number154
G-Factor
0
Half Life
409 ± 2 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1964
Parity+

154Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)92.6%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)7.4%

155Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
154.945783216 ± 0.00001782 Da
Mass Number155
G-Factor
-0.26 ± 0.0057142857142857
Half Life
1.793 ± 0.02 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.5 ± 0.3
Discovery Year1964
Parity-

155Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)89%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)11%

156Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
155.942817096 ± 0.000009992 Da
Mass Number156
G-Factor
0
Half Life
26.1 ± 0.7 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

156Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)90%
α (α emission)10%

157Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
156.942651368 ± 0.000011706 Da
Mass Number157
G-Factor
-0.182 ± 0.0022857142857143
Half Life
38.6 ± 1 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity-

157Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)%

158Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
157.939871202 ± 0.000008559 Da
Mass Number158
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.49 ± 0.13 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

158Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.0021%

159Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
158.940060257 ± 0.000018874 Da
Mass Number159
G-Factor
-0.146 ± 0.0032
Half Life
1.67 ± 0.09 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.22 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1975
Parity-

159Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

160Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
159.93755921 ± 0.0000059 Da
Mass Number160
G-Factor
0
Half Life
4.8 ± 0.2 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

160Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

161Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
160.937912384 ± 0.000016211 Da
Mass Number161
G-Factor
-0.21733333333333 ± 0.0053333333333333
Half Life
4.2 ± 0.2 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.03 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1974
Parity-

161Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

162Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
161.935779342 ± 0.000016213 Da
Mass Number162
G-Factor
0
Half Life
18.87 ± 0.19 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1963
Parity+

162Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

163Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
162.936345406 ± 0.000016215 Da
Mass Number163
G-Factor
-0.24866666666667 ± 0.0053333333333333
Half Life
11.05 ± 0.35 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.24 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1967
Parity-

163Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

164Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
163.934500743 ± 0.000016217 Da
Mass Number164
G-Factor
0
Half Life
75.8 ± 1.7 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1960
Parity+

164Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

165Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
164.935270241 ± 0.00002849 Da
Mass Number165
G-Factor
0.1908 ± 0.0032
Half Life
9.9 ± 0.3 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
2.48 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1964
Parity-

165Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

166Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
165.933876439 ± 0.000007515 Da
Mass Number166
G-Factor
0
Half Life
56.7 ± 0.1 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1954
Parity+

166Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

167Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
166.934954069 ± 0.000004251 Da
Mass Number167
G-Factor
0.2484 ± 0.0032
Half Life
17.5 ± 0.2 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
2.7 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1954
Parity-

167Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

168Yb

Abundance
0.123 ± 0.003
Relative Atomic Mass
167.933891297 ± 0.0000001 Da
Mass Number168
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

168Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%
+ (double β+ decay)%

169Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
168.935184208 ± 0.000000191 Da
Mass Number169
G-Factor
-0.18085714285714 ± 0.0022857142857143
Half Life
32.014 ± 0.005 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
3.54 ± 0.06
Discovery Year1946
Parity+

169Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

170Yb

Abundance
2.982 ± 0.039
Relative Atomic Mass
169.934767242 ± 0.000000011 Da
Mass Number170
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

171Yb

Abundance
14.086 ± 0.14
Relative Atomic Mass
170.936331515 ± 0.000000013 Da
Mass Number171
G-Factor
0.9846 ± 0.0008
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity-

172Yb

Abundance
21.686 ± 0.13
Relative Atomic Mass
171.936386654 ± 0.000000014 Da
Mass Number172
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

173Yb

Abundance
16.103 ± 0.063
Relative Atomic Mass
172.938216211 ± 0.000000012 Da
Mass Number173
G-Factor
-0.2712 ± 0.00024
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
2.8 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1934
Parity-

174Yb

Abundance
32.025 ± 0.08
Relative Atomic Mass
173.938867545 ± 0.000000011 Da
Mass Number174
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

175Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
174.941281907 ± 0.000000076 Da
Mass Number175
G-Factor
0.21885714285714 ± 0.0022857142857143
Half Life
4.185 ± 0.001 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
3.52 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1945
Parity-

175Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

176Yb

Abundance
12.995 ± 0.083
Relative Atomic Mass
175.942574706 ± 0.000000015 Da
Mass Number176
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

176Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%
α (α emission)%

177Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
176.945263846 ± 0.000000236 Da
Mass Number177
G-Factor
-0.15444444444444 ± 0.0033333333333333
Half Life
1.911 ± 0.003 h
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
4.03 ± 0.06
Discovery Year1945
Parity+

177Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

178Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
177.9466694 ± 0.000007072 Da
Mass Number178
G-Factor
0
Half Life
74 ± 3 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1973
Parity+

178Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

179Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
178.94993 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number179
G-Factor
Half Life
8 ± 0.4 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1982
Parity-

179Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

180Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
179.951991 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number180
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.4 ± 0.5 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

180Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

181Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
180.95589 ± 0.00032 Da
Mass Number181
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2000
Parity-

181Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

182Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
181.958239 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number182
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

182Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

183Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
182.962426 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number183
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity-

183Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

184Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
183.965002 ± 0.00054 Da
Mass Number184
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

184Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

185Yb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
184.969425 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number185
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity-

185Yb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

History

Ytterbium was discovered by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in the year 1878. In 1907, in Paris, George Urbain separated ytterbia into two constituents. Ytterbium metal was first made in 1937 by Klemm and Bonner by heating ytterbium chloride and potassium together. A relatively pure sample of the metal was obtained only in 1953. Ytterbium was named after Ytterby, a town in Sweden

DiscoverersJean de Marignac
Discovery LocationSwitzerland
Discovery Year1878
Etymology (Name Origin)Named for the Swedish village of Ytterby.
Pronunciationi-TUR-bi-em (English)
Ytterbium is considered to be moderately toxic
Ytterbium is recovered commercially from monazite sand

Uses

Ytterbium fiber laser amplifiers are used in marking and engraving. Ytterbium compounds are also used as catalysts in the organic chemical industry. Ytterbium can be used as a dopant to help improve the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel. Used in metallurgical and chemical experiments.

Sources

Found in minerals such as yttria, monazite, gadolinite, and xenotime. Monazite is often 50% rare earth by weight and typically 0.03% ytterbium.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
3.2 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00000082 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.000018 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.3611
2p4.3716
2s18.306
3d13.6033
3p20.6635
3s21.2398
4d36.4104
4f40.568
4p33.598
4s32.4824
5p52.1685
5s49.85
6s61.4068