Niobium

Niobium (Nb)

Soft, ductile grey-blue metallic transition element. Used in special steels and in welded joints to increase strength. Combines with halogens and oxidizes in air at 200 degrees celsius. Discovered by Charles Hatchett in 1801 and isolated by Blomstrand in 1864. Called Columbium originally.
Atomic Number41
Atomic Weight92.90637
Mass Number93
Group5
Period5
Blockd
Protons41 p+
Neutrons52 n0
Electrons41 e-
Niobium crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Nb (Niobium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Nb (Niobium) Bohr Model: Nb (Niobium) Orbital Diagram of Nb (Niobium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
145 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
147 pm
Metallic Radius
134 pm
Ionic Radius
72 pm
Crystal Radius
86 pm
Van der Waals Radius
218 pm
Density
8.57 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.917406 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
6.75885 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
680 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
26.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
733 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Valence Electrons5
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d4 5s1
Oxidation States-3, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Electronegativity
1.6
Electrophilicity
1.2609233730892566 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
5,014.15 K
Melting Point
2,750.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Gray
Appearancegray metallic, bluish when oxidized
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
53.7 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.0000073 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
0.265 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
6.7 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000015 m Ω
Superconducting Point
9.25 K
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000276 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.00000000256 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.000237
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
3.3 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
6 MPa
Bulk Modulus
170 GPa
Shear Modulus
38 GPa
Young Modulus
105 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.4
Speed of Sound
3,480 m/s
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVA
IUPAC GroupVB
Glawe Number53
Mendeleev Number48
Pettifor Number52
Geochemical Classhigh field strength
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
98 ± 8 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
1.15
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0004
Quantum Numbers6D1/2
Space Group229 (Im_3m)

Isotopes of Niobium

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes37
Radioactive Isotopes34

79Nb

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
78.966022 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number79
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

79Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

80Nb

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
79.958754 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number80
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

80Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

81Nb

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
80.95023 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number81
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

81Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

82Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
81.94438 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number82
G-Factor
0
Half Life
51 ± 5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1992
Parity+

82Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

83Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
82.93815 ± 0.000174 Da
Mass Number83
G-Factor
Half Life
3.9 ± 0.2 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1988
Parity+

83Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

84Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
83.934305711 ± 0.00000043 Da
Mass Number84
G-Factor
Half Life
9.8 ± 0.9 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

84Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

85Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
84.928845836 ± 0.0000044 Da
Mass Number85
G-Factor
Half Life
20.5 ± 0.7 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1988
Parity+

85Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

86Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
85.925781536 ± 0.000005903 Da
Mass Number86
G-Factor
Half Life
88 ± 1 s
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

86Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

87Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
86.920692473 ± 0.000007302 Da
Mass Number87
G-Factor
Half Life
3.7 ± 0.1 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity

87Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

88Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
87.918226476 ± 0.000062059 Da
Mass Number88
G-Factor
Half Life
14.5 ± 0.11 m
Spin8
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1964
Parity+

88Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

89Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
88.913444696 ± 0.000025367 Da
Mass Number89
G-Factor
1.3813333333333 ± 0.0011111111111111
Half Life
2.03 ± 0.07 h
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1954
Parity+

89Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

90Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
89.911259201 ± 0.000003561 Da
Mass Number90
G-Factor
0.61825 ± 0.0005
Half Life
14.6 ± 0.05 h
Spin8
Quadrupole Moment
0.01 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

90Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

91Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
90.906990256 ± 0.00000314 Da
Mass Number91
G-Factor
1.4473333333333 ± 0.00066666666666667
Half Life
680 ± 130 y
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.25 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

91Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%
e+ (positron emission)0.0138%

92Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
91.90718858 ± 0.000001915 Da
Mass Number92
G-Factor
0.73285714285714 ± 0.00057142857142857
Half Life
34.7 ± 2.4 My
Spin7
Quadrupole Moment
-0.35 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

92Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

93Nb

Abundance
100
Relative Atomic Mass
92.90637317 ± 0.000001599 Da
Mass Number93
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.32 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1932
Parity+

94Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
93.907279001 ± 0.0000016 Da
Mass Number94
G-Factor
Half Life
20.4 ± 0.4 ky
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

94Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

95Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
94.90683111 ± 0.000000545 Da
Mass Number95
G-Factor
1.3646666666667 ± 0.0011111111111111
Half Life
34.991 ± 0.006 d
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

95Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

96Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
95.908101586 ± 0.000000157 Da
Mass Number96
G-Factor
0.82916666666667 ± 0.00066666666666667
Half Life
23.35 ± 0.05 h
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

96Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

97Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
96.908101622 ± 0.000004556 Da
Mass Number97
G-Factor
1.3673333333333 ± 0.0011111111111111
Half Life
72.1 ± 0.7 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

97Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

98Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
97.910332645 ± 0.000005369 Da
Mass Number98
G-Factor
Half Life
2.86 ± 0.06 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1960
Parity+

98Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

99Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
98.911609377 ± 0.000012886 Da
Mass Number99
G-Factor
1.3244444444444 ± 0.0066666666666667
Half Life
15 ± 0.2 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.41 ± 0.14
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

99Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

100Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
99.914340578 ± 0.000008562 Da
Mass Number100
G-Factor
Half Life
1.5 ± 0.2 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

100Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

101Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
100.915306508 ± 0.000004024 Da
Mass Number101
G-Factor
1.2744 ± 0.0008
Half Life
7.1 ± 0.3 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.05 ± 0.07
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

101Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

102Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
101.918090447 ± 0.000002695 Da
Mass Number102
G-Factor
Half Life
4.3 ± 0.4 s
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

102Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

103Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
102.919453416 ± 0.000004224 Da
Mass Number103
G-Factor
1.2532 ± 0.0016
Half Life
1.34 ± 0.07 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.08 ± 0.09
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

103Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

104Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
103.922907728 ± 0.000001915 Da
Mass Number104
G-Factor
Half Life
0.98 ± 0.05 s
Spin5
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1976
Parity-

104Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.05%

105Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
104.924942577 ± 0.000004324 Da
Mass Number105
G-Factor
Half Life
2.91 ± 0.05 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1984
Parity+

105Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1.7%

106Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
105.928928505 ± 0.00000152 Da
Mass Number106
G-Factor
Half Life
900 ± 20 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1976
Parity-

106Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)4.5%

107Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
106.931589685 ± 0.000008612 Da
Mass Number107
G-Factor
Half Life
286 ± 8 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1992
Parity+

107Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)7.4%

108Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
107.936075604 ± 0.000008844 Da
Mass Number108
G-Factor
Half Life
201 ± 4 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

108Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)6.3%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

109Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
108.939141 ± 0.0004625 Da
Mass Number109
G-Factor
Half Life
106.9 ± 4.9 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity-

109Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)31%

110Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
109.943843 ± 0.0009 Da
Mass Number110
G-Factor
Half Life
75 ± 1 ms
Spin5
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

110Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)40%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

111Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
110.947439 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number111
G-Factor
Half Life
54 ± 2 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity-

111Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

112Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
111.952689 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number112
G-Factor
Half Life
38 ± 2 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

112Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

113Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
112.956833 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number113
G-Factor
Half Life
32 ± 4 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity-

113Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

114Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
113.962469 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number114
G-Factor
Half Life
17 ± 5 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity-

114Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

115Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
114.966849 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number115
G-Factor
Half Life
23 ± 8 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity-

115Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

116Nb

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
115.972914 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number116
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2018
Parity-

116Nb Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

History

Niobium was discovered by the English chemist Charles Hatchett in 1801 and named the new element columbium. In 1846, German chemist Henrich Rose independently discovered the element and named it niobium. The metal was first isolated by Swedish scientist Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand in 1864 who reduced the chloride by heating it in a hydrogen atmosphere. Named after Niobe, the daughter of Tantalu

DiscoverersCharles Hatchet
Discovery LocationEngland
Discovery Year1801
Etymology (Name Origin)From Niobe; daughter of the mythical Greek king Tantalus.
Pronunciationni-OH-bee-em (English)
Some niobium compounds are highly toxic
Brazil is the leading producer of niobium

Uses

Niobium is used in arc-welding rods for stabilized grades of stainless steel. Niobium alloys are strong and are often used in pipeline construction. The metal is used in superalloys for jet engines and heat resistant equipment. Niobium is found in many medical devices such as pacemakers. Used as an alloy with iron and nickel. It can be used in nuclear reactors and is known to be superconductive when alloyed with tin, aluminum or zirconium.

Sources

Occurs in a mineral columbite. Formerly known as colombium (Cb). It is used in stainless steel alloys for nuclear reactors, jets and missiles.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.00001 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.000019 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0000004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.8577
2p4.0178
2s10.8748
3d14.753
3p16.3844
3s15.8285
4d29.7624
4p26.9156
4s25.7172
5s35.079