Niobium

Niobium (Nb)

Soft, ductile grey-blue metallic transition element. Used in special steels and in welded joints to increase strength. Combines with halogens and oxidizes in air at 200 degrees celsius. Discovered by Charles Hatchett in 1801 and isolated by Blomstrand in 1864. Called Columbium originally.
Atomic Number41
Atomic Weight92.90637
Mass Number93
Group5
Period5
Blockd
Protons41 p+
Neutrons52 n0
Electrons41 e-
Niobium crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
145 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
147 pm
Metallic Radius
134 pm
Ionic Radius
72 pm
Crystal Radius
86 pm
Van der Waals radius
218.00000000000003 pm
Density
8.57 g/cm³
Boiling Point
5,015 K
Melting Point
2,741 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Electronegativity
1.6
Electrophilicity
1.2609233730893 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.917406 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
6.75885 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
680 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
26.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
733 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
0.265 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
53.7 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
98 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States-1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Color
Gray
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
3.3 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d4 5s1
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVA
IUPAC GroupVB
Glawe Number53
Mendeleev Number48
Pettifor Number52
Geochemical Classhigh field strength
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.00001 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe2×10-7%

Isotopes of Niobium

Stable Isotopes
93Nb
Unstable Isotopes
81Nb 82Nb 83Nb 84Nb 85Nb 86Nb 87Nb 88Nb 89Nb 90Nb 91Nb 92Nb 94Nb 95Nb 96Nb 97Nb 98Nb 99Nb 100Nb 101Nb 102Nb 103Nb 104Nb 105Nb 106Nb 107Nb 108Nb 109Nb 110Nb 111Nb 112Nb 113Nb

History

Niobium was discovered by the English chemist Charles Hatchett in 1801 and named the new element columbium. In 1846, German chemist Henrich Rose independently discovered the element and named it niobium. The metal was first isolated by Swedish scientist Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand in 1864 who reduced the chloride by heating it in a hydrogen atmosphere. Named after Niobe, the daughter of Tantalu

DiscoverersCharles Hatchet
Discovery LocationEngland
Discovery Year1801
Name OriginFrom Niobe; daughter of the mythical Greek king Tantalus.
Some niobium compounds are highly toxic
Brazil is the leading producer of niobium

Uses

Niobium is used in arc-welding rods for stabilized grades of stainless steel. Niobium alloys are strong and are often used in pipeline construction. The metal is used in superalloys for jet engines and heat resistant equipment. Niobium is found in many medical devices such as pacemakers. Used as an alloy with iron and nickel. It can be used in nuclear reactors and is known to be superconductive when alloyed with tin, aluminum or zirconium.

Sources

Occurs in a mineral columbite. Formerly known as colombium (Cb). It is used in stainless steel alloys for nuclear reactors, jets and missiles.