Niobium

Niobium (Nb)

chemical element with symbol Nb and atomic number 41
Atomic Number41
Atomic Weight92.90637
mass number93
Group5
Period5
Blockd
proton41 p+
neutron52 n0
electron41 e-
Animated Bohr model of Nb (Niobium)

Āhuatanga Ōkiko

Atomic Radius
145 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
147 pm
Metallic Radius
134 pm
ionic radius
72 pm
Crystal Radius
86 pm
Van der Waals radius
218 pm
density
8.57 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Niobium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energy
proton affinity
electron affinity
0.917406 eV/particle
ionization energy
6.75885 eV/particle
ionization energy of Nb (Niobium)
enthalpy of vaporization
680 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
26.8 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
733 kJ/mol
electron
electron shell2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Bohr model: Nb (Niobium)
valence electron1
Lewis structure: Nb (Niobium)
electron configuration[Kr] 4d4 5s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4d4 5s1
Enhanced Bohr model of Nb (Niobium)
Orbital Diagram of Nb (Niobium)
oxidation number-3, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
electronegativity
1.6
Electrophilicity Index
1.2609233730892566 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
5,014.15 K
Melting Point
2,750.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
color
Gray
appearancegray metallic, bluish when oxidized
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
53.7 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0.0000073 1/K
molar heat capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
0.265 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
6.7 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.00000015 m Ω
superconductivity
9.25 K
magnetism
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000276 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.00000000256 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.000237
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
lattice constant
3.3 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
6 MPa
bulk modulus
170 GPa
shear modulus
38 GPa
Young's modulus
105 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0.4
speed of sound
3,480 m/s
classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVA
IUPAC GroupVB
Glawe Number53
Mendeleev Number48
Pettifor Number52
Geochemical Classhigh field strength
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
98 ± 8 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
1.15
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0004
quantum number6D1/2
space group229 (Im_3m)

Isotopes of Niobium

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes37
Natural Isotopes1

79Nb

mass number79
neutron number38
relative atomic mass
78.966022 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention
parity+

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

80Nb

mass number80
neutron number39
relative atomic mass
79.958754 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention
parity-

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

81Nb

mass number81
neutron number40
relative atomic mass
80.95023 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention
parity+

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

82Nb

mass number82
neutron number41
relative atomic mass
81.94438 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
51 ± 5 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1992
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

83Nb

mass number83
neutron number42
relative atomic mass
82.93815 ± 0.000174 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.9 ± 0.2 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1988
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

84Nb

mass number84
neutron number43
relative atomic mass
83.934305711 ± 0.00000043 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9.8 ± 0.9 s
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1977
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

85Nb

mass number85
neutron number44
relative atomic mass
84.928845836 ± 0.0000044 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
20.5 ± 0.7 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1988
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

86Nb

mass number86
neutron number45
relative atomic mass
85.925781536 ± 0.000005903 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
88 ± 1 s
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1974
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

87Nb

mass number87
neutron number46
relative atomic mass
86.920692473 ± 0.000007302 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.7 ± 0.1 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1971
parity

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

88Nb

mass number88
neutron number47
relative atomic mass
87.918226476 ± 0.000062059 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
14.5 ± 0.11 m
spin8
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1964
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

89Nb

mass number89
neutron number48
relative atomic mass
88.913444696 ± 0.000025367 Da
g-factor
1.3813333333333 ± 0.0011111111111111
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.03 ± 0.07 h
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1954
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

90Nb

mass number90
neutron number49
relative atomic mass
89.911259201 ± 0.000003561 Da
g-factor
0.61825 ± 0.0005
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
14.6 ± 0.05 h
spin8
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.01 ± 0.04
time of discovery or invention1951
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

91Nb

mass number91
neutron number50
relative atomic mass
90.906990256 ± 0.00000314 Da
g-factor
1.4473333333333 ± 0.00066666666666667
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
680 ± 130 y
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.25 ± 0.03
time of discovery or invention1951
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%
e+ (positron emission)0.0138%

92Nb

mass number92
neutron number51
relative atomic mass
91.90718858 ± 0.000001915 Da
g-factor
0.73285714285714 ± 0.00057142857142857
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
34.7 ± 2.4 My
spin7
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.35 ± 0.03
time of discovery or invention1938
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

93Nb

mass number93
neutron number52
relative atomic mass
92.90637317 ± 0.000001599 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
100
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.32 ± 0.02
time of discovery or invention1932
parity+

94Nb

mass number94
neutron number53
relative atomic mass
93.907279001 ± 0.0000016 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
20.4 ± 0.4 ky
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1938
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

95Nb

mass number95
neutron number54
relative atomic mass
94.90683111 ± 0.000000545 Da
g-factor
1.3646666666667 ± 0.0011111111111111
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
34.991 ± 0.006 d
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1951
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

96Nb

mass number96
neutron number55
relative atomic mass
95.908101586 ± 0.000000157 Da
g-factor
0.82916666666667 ± 0.00066666666666667
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
23.35 ± 0.05 h
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1949
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

97Nb

mass number97
neutron number56
relative atomic mass
96.908101622 ± 0.000004556 Da
g-factor
1.3673333333333 ± 0.0011111111111111
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
72.1 ± 0.7 m
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1951
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

98Nb

mass number98
neutron number57
relative atomic mass
97.910332645 ± 0.000005369 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.86 ± 0.06 s
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1960
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

99Nb

mass number99
neutron number58
relative atomic mass
98.911609377 ± 0.000012886 Da
g-factor
1.3244444444444 ± 0.0066666666666667
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
15 ± 0.2 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.41 ± 0.14
time of discovery or invention1950
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

100Nb

mass number100
neutron number59
relative atomic mass
99.914340578 ± 0.000008562 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.5 ± 0.2 s
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1967
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

101Nb

mass number101
neutron number60
relative atomic mass
100.915306508 ± 0.000004024 Da
g-factor
1.2744 ± 0.0008
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
7.1 ± 0.3 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1.05 ± 0.07
time of discovery or invention1970
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

102Nb

mass number102
neutron number61
relative atomic mass
101.918090447 ± 0.000002695 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.3 ± 0.4 s
spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

103Nb

mass number103
neutron number62
relative atomic mass
102.919453416 ± 0.000004224 Da
g-factor
1.2532 ± 0.0016
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.34 ± 0.07 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
1.08 ± 0.09
time of discovery or invention1971
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

104Nb

mass number104
neutron number63
relative atomic mass
103.922907728 ± 0.000001915 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
0.98 ± 0.05 s
spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1976
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.05%

105Nb

mass number105
neutron number64
relative atomic mass
104.924942577 ± 0.000004324 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.91 ± 0.05 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1984
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1.7%

106Nb

mass number106
neutron number65
relative atomic mass
105.928928505 ± 0.00000152 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
900 ± 20 ms
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1976
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)4.5%

107Nb

mass number107
neutron number66
relative atomic mass
106.931589685 ± 0.000008612 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
286 ± 8 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1992
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)7.4%

108Nb

mass number108
neutron number67
relative atomic mass
107.936075604 ± 0.000008844 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
201 ± 4 ms
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)6.3%
2n (2-neutron emission)

109Nb

mass number109
neutron number68
relative atomic mass
108.939141 ± 0.0004625 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
106.9 ± 4.9 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1994
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)31%

110Nb

mass number110
neutron number69
relative atomic mass
109.943843 ± 0.0009 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
75 ± 1 ms
spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)40%
2n (2-neutron emission)

111Nb

mass number111
neutron number70
relative atomic mass
110.947439 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
54 ± 2 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1997
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

112Nb

mass number112
neutron number71
relative atomic mass
111.952689 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
38 ± 2 ms
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

113Nb

mass number113
neutron number72
relative atomic mass
112.956833 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
32 ± 4 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1997
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

114Nb

mass number114
neutron number73
relative atomic mass
113.962469 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
17 ± 5 ms
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention2010
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

115Nb

mass number115
neutron number74
relative atomic mass
114.966849 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
23 ± 8 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention2010
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

116Nb

mass number116
neutron number75
relative atomic mass
115.972914 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention2018
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Niobium crystals and 1cm3 cube

kōrero nehe

discoverer or inventorCharles Hatchet
location of discoveryEngland
time of discovery or invention1801
etymologyFrom Niobe; daughter of the mythical Greek king Tantalus.
pronunciationni-OH-bee-em (Ingarihi)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (Moana nui)
0.00001 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0.000019 %
natural abundance (Te Rā)
0.0000004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.8577
2p4.0178
2s10.8748
3d14.753
3p16.3844
3s15.8285
4d29.7624
4p26.9156
4s25.7172
5s35.079