Neodymium

Neodymium (Nd)

Soft bright silvery metallic element, belongs to the lanthanoids. Seven natural isotopes, Nd-144 being the only radioactive one with a half-life of 10^10 to 10^15 years. Six artificial radioisotopes have been produced. The metal is used in glass works to color class a shade of violet-purple and make it dichroic. One of the more reactive rare-earth metals, quickly reacts with air. Used in some rare-earth alloys. Neodymium is used to color the glass used in welder's glasses. Neodymium is also used in very powerful, permanent magnets (Nd2Fe14B). Discovered by Carl F. Auer von Welsbach in Austria in 1885 by separating didymium into its elemental components Praseodymium and neodymium. The name comes from the Greek words 'neos didymos' which means 'new twin'. Neodymium should be considered highly toxic, however evidence would seem to show that it acts as little more than a skin and eye irritant. The dust however, presents a fire and explosion hazard.
Atomic Number60
Atomic Weight144.242
Mass Number142
Group
Period6
Blockf
Protons60 p+
Neutrons82 n0
Electrons60 e-
Neodym 1.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Nd (Neodymium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Nd (Neodymium) Bohr Model: Nd (Neodymium) Orbital Diagram of Nd (Neodymium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
185 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
174 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
129 pm
Crystal Radius
143 pm
Van der Waals Radius
239 pm
Density
7.01 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
Heat of Vaporization
289 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
7.1 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
326.9 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
Valence Electrons3
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f4 6s2
Oxidation States0, 2, 3, 4
Electronegativity
1.14
Electrophilicity
1.9177223954003881 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
3,347.15 K
Melting Point
1,289.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery white
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000096 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
27.45 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
1.6 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000064 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.00000048 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000069235 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0033648
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
19.2 K
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
3.66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
32 GPa
Shear Modulus
16 GPa
Young Modulus
41 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.28
Speed of Sound
2,330 m/s
Classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number29
Mendeleev Number19
Pettifor Number30
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
208 ± 20 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
49
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.011
Quantum Numbers5I4
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Neodymium

Stable Isotopes7
Unstable Isotopes33
Radioactive Isotopes35

124Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
123.951873 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number124
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

124Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

125Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
124.948395 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number125
G-Factor
Half Life
650 ± 150 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1999
Parity

125Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0%

126Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
125.942694 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number126
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2000
Parity+

126Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

127Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
126.939978 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number127
G-Factor
Half Life
1.8 ± 0.4 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

127Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

128Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
127.935018 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number128
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

128Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

129Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
128.933038 ± 0.000217 Da
Mass Number129
G-Factor
Half Life
6.8 ± 0.6 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1977
Parity-

129Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

130Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
129.928506 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number130
G-Factor
0
Half Life
21 ± 3 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

130Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

131Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
130.92724802 ± 0.000029541 Da
Mass Number131
G-Factor
Half Life
25.4 ± 0.9 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

131Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

132Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
131.923321237 ± 0.000025985 Da
Mass Number132
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.56 ± 0.1 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

132Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

133Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
132.922348 ± 0.00005 Da
Mass Number133
G-Factor
Half Life
70 ± 10 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

133Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

134Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
133.918790207 ± 0.000012686 Da
Mass Number134
G-Factor
0
Half Life
8.5 ± 1.5 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

134Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

135Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
134.918181318 ± 0.000020534 Da
Mass Number135
G-Factor
-0.17333333333333 ± 0.0066666666666667
Half Life
12.4 ± 0.6 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.9 ± 0.5
Discovery Year1970
Parity-

135Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

136Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
135.914976061 ± 0.000012686 Da
Mass Number136
G-Factor
0
Half Life
50.65 ± 0.33 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1968
Parity+

136Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

137Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
136.914563099 ± 0.000012586 Da
Mass Number137
G-Factor
-1.264 ± 0.01
Half Life
38.5 ± 1.5 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

137Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

138Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
137.911950938 ± 0.000012456 Da
Mass Number138
G-Factor
0
Half Life
5.04 ± 0.09 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1965
Parity+

138Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

139Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
138.911951208 ± 0.000029545 Da
Mass Number139
G-Factor
0.60333333333333 ± 0.0046666666666667
Half Life
29.7 ± 0.5 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.28 ± 0.09
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

139Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

140Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
139.90954613 ± 0.0000035 Da
Mass Number140
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.37 ± 0.02 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

140Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

141Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
140.90961669 ± 0.000003417 Da
Mass Number141
G-Factor
0.67333333333333 ± 0.006
Half Life
2.49 ± 0.03 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.32 ± 0.13
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

141Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
ϵ (electron capture)97.28%
e+ (positron emission)2.72%

142Nd

Abundance
27.153 ± 0.04
Relative Atomic Mass
141.907728824 ± 0.000001348 Da
Mass Number142
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1924
Parity+

143Nd

Abundance
12.173 ± 0.026
Relative Atomic Mass
142.909819815 ± 0.000001347 Da
Mass Number143
G-Factor
-0.30428571428571 ± 0.0014285714285714
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.61 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1933
Parity-

144Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
23.798 ± 0.019
Relative Atomic Mass
143.910092798 ± 0.000001346 Da
Mass Number144
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.29 ± 0.16 Py
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1924
Parity+

144Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

145Nd

Abundance
8.293 ± 0.012
Relative Atomic Mass
144.912579151 ± 0.000001364 Da
Mass Number145
G-Factor
-0.18742857142857 ± 0.0011428571428571
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.314 ± 0.012
Discovery Year1933
Parity-

145Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%

146Nd

Abundance
17.189 ± 0.032
Relative Atomic Mass
145.913122459 ± 0.000001366 Da
Mass Number146
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1924
Parity+

146Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%
α (α emission)%

147Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
146.916105969 ± 0.000001368 Da
Mass Number147
G-Factor
0.2216 ± 0.004
Half Life
10.98 ± 0.01 d
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.9 ± 0.3
Discovery Year1947
Parity-

147Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

148Nd

Abundance
5.756 ± 0.021
Relative Atomic Mass
147.916899027 ± 0.000002203 Da
Mass Number148
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

148Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%
α (α emission)%

149Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
148.920154583 ± 0.000002205 Da
Mass Number149
G-Factor
0.1404 ± 0.004
Half Life
1.728 ± 0.001 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.3 ± 0.3
Discovery Year1938
Parity-

149Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

150Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
5.638 ± 0.028
Relative Atomic Mass
149.920901322 ± 0.000001211 Da
Mass Number150
G-Factor
0
Half Life
9.3 ± 0.7 Ey
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

150Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)100%

151Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
150.923839363 ± 0.000001215 Da
Mass Number151
G-Factor
Half Life
12.44 ± 0.07 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

151Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

152Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
151.924691242 ± 0.000026276 Da
Mass Number152
G-Factor
0
Half Life
11.4 ± 0.2 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

152Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

153Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
152.927717868 ± 0.000002949 Da
Mass Number153
G-Factor
Half Life
31.6 ± 1 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity

153Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

154Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
153.929597404 ± 0.0000011 Da
Mass Number154
G-Factor
0
Half Life
25.9 ± 0.2 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

154Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

155Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
154.933135598 ± 0.000009826 Da
Mass Number155
G-Factor
Half Life
8.9 ± 0.2 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1986
Parity-

155Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

156Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
155.935370358 ± 0.0000014 Da
Mass Number156
G-Factor
0
Half Life
5.06 ± 0.13 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1987
Parity+

156Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

157Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
156.939351074 ± 0.000002294 Da
Mass Number157
G-Factor
Half Life
1.15 ± 0.03 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1992
Parity-

157Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

158Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
157.94220562 ± 0.0000014 Da
Mass Number158
G-Factor
0
Half Life
810 ± 30 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1992
Parity+

158Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

159Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
158.946619085 ± 0.000032 Da
Mass Number159
G-Factor
Half Life
500 ± 30 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

159Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

160Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
159.949839172 ± 0.00005 Da
Mass Number160
G-Factor
0
Half Life
439 ± 37 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

160Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

161Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
160.954664 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number161
G-Factor
Half Life
215 ± 76 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity-

161Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

162Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
161.958121 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number162
G-Factor
0
Half Life
310 ± 200 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

162Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

163Nd

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
162.963414 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number163
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2018
Parity-

163Nd Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

History

Neodymium was first identified in 1885, in Vienna, by the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. It was discovered in didymium, a substance incorrectly said by Carl Gustav Mosander to be a new element in 1841. Pure neodymium metal was isolated in 1925. From the Greek word neos meaning new, and didymos, twin

DiscoverersC.F. Aver von Welsbach
Discovery LocationAustria
Discovery Year1925
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: neos and didymos (new twin).
Pronunciationnee-eh-DIM-i-em (English)
Neodymium is considered to be moderately toxic
Most of the world's neodymium is mined in China

Uses

Neodymium is used to make specialized goggles for glass blowers. Neodymium magnets appear in products such as microphones, professional loudspeakers, in-ear headphones, guitar and bass guitar pick-ups and computer hard disks. Glass containing neodymium can be used as a laser material to produce coherent light. Used in making artificial ruby for lasers. Also in ceramics and for a special lens with praseodymium. Also to produce bright purple glass and special glass that filters infrared radiation. Makes up 18% of Mich metal, which is used in making steel.

Sources

Made from electrolysis of its halide salts, which are made from monazite sand.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
41.5 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.0000028 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.00005 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0000003 %
Abundance in Universe
0.000001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.1868
2p4.2434
2s15.7838
3d13.8432
3p19.311
3s19.6572
4d33.1908
4f37.734
4p29.986
4s29.0136
5p43.039
5s41.2575
6s50.6934