Neodymium (Nd)

Soft bright silvery metallic element, belongs to the lanthanoids. Seven natural isotopes, Nd-144 being the only radioactive one with a half-life of 10^10 to 10^15 years. Six artificial radioisotopes have been produced. The metal is used in glass works to color class a shade of violet-purple and make it dichroic. One of the more reactive rare-earth metals, quickly reacts with air. Used in some rare-earth alloys. Neodymium is used to color the glass used in welder's glasses. Neodymium is also used in very powerful, permanent magnets (Nd2Fe14B). Discovered by Carl F. Auer von Welsbach in Austria in 1885 by separating didymium into its elemental components Praseodymium and neodymium. The name comes from the Greek words 'neos didymos' which means 'new twin'. Neodymium should be considered highly toxic, however evidence would seem to show that it acts as little more than a skin and eye irritant. The dust however, presents a fire and explosion hazard.
Atomic Number60
Atomic Weight144.242
Mass Number142
Protons60 p+
Neutrons82 n0
Electrons60 e-
Neodym 1.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram


Atomic Radius
185 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
174 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
129 pm
Crystal Radius
143 pm
Van der Waals radius
239 pm
7.01 g/cm³
Boiling Point
3,341 K
Melting Point
1,294 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
1.9177223954004 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
Heat of Vaporization
289 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
7.1 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
326.9 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
27.45 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
208 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States2, 3
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
3.66 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f4 6s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Magnetic Susceptibility
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
Glawe Number29
Mendeleev Number19
Pettifor Number30
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Decay Mode
Abundance in Earth's crust
41.5 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.0000028 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe1×10-6%

Isotopes of Neodymium

Stable Isotopes
142Nd 143Nd 144Nd 145Nd 146Nd 148Nd 150Nd
Unstable Isotopes
124Nd 125Nd 126Nd 127Nd 128Nd 129Nd 130Nd 131Nd 132Nd 133Nd 134Nd 135Nd 136Nd 137Nd 138Nd 139Nd 140Nd 141Nd 147Nd 149Nd 151Nd 152Nd 153Nd 154Nd 155Nd 156Nd 157Nd 158Nd 159Nd 160Nd 161Nd


Neodymium was first identified in 1885, in Vienna, by the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. It was discovered in didymium, a substance incorrectly said by Carl Gustav Mosander to be a new element in 1841. Pure neodymium metal was isolated in 1925. From the Greek word neos meaning new, and didymos, twin

DiscoverersC.F. Aver von Welsbach
Discovery LocationAustria
Discovery Year1925
Name OriginGreek: neos and didymos (new twin).
Neodymium is considered to be moderately toxic
Most of the world's neodymium is mined in China


Neodymium is used to make specialized goggles for glass blowers. Neodymium magnets appear in products such as microphones, professional loudspeakers, in-ear headphones, guitar and bass guitar pick-ups and computer hard disks. Glass containing neodymium can be used as a laser material to produce coherent light. Used in making artificial ruby for lasers. Also in ceramics and for a special lens with praseodymium. Also to produce bright purple glass and special glass that filters infrared radiation. Makes up 18% of Mich metal, which is used in making steel.


Made from electrolysis of its halide salts, which are made from monazite sand.