Sulfur

Sulfur (S)

Yellow, nonmetallic element belonging to group 16 of the periodic table. It is an essential element in living organisms, needed in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, and hence in many proteins. Absorbed by plants from the soil as sulphate ion.
Atomic Number16
Atomic Weight32.06
Mass Number32
Group16
Period3
Blockp
Protons16 p+
Neutrons16 n0
Electrons16 e-
Sulfur - El Desierto mine, San Pablo de Napa, Daniel Campos Province, Potosí, Bolivia.jpg Animated Bohr Model of S (Sulfur) Enhanced Bohr Model of S (Sulfur) Bohr Model: S (Sulfur) Orbital Diagram of S (Sulfur)

Properties

Atomic Radius
100 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
103 pm
Metallic Radius
104 pm
Ionic Radius
184 pm
Crystal Radius
170 pm
Van der Waals Radius
180 pm
Density
2.07 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
664.3 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
2.07710403 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
10.36001 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
10.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
1.23 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
277.17 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 6
Valence Electrons6
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p4
Oxidation States-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Electronegativity
2.58
Electrophilicity
2.3343529124239053 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
717.76 K
Melting Point
368.35 K
Critical Pressure
20.7 MPa
Critical Temperature
1,314.15 K
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Yellow
Appearancelemon yellow sintered microcrystals
Refractive Index
1.001111
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
0.27 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
0.708 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeInsulator
Electrical Conductivity
0.000000000000000000001 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
1,000,000,000,000,000 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000062 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000199 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000122
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Orthorhombic (ORC)
Lattice Constant
10.47 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
2 MPa
Bulk Modulus
7.7 GPa
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
Classification
CategoryOther nonmetals, Nonmetals
CAS GroupVIB
IUPAC GroupVIA
Glawe Number96
Mendeleev Number100
Pettifor Number94
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Other
Gas Basicity
640.2 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
19.4 ± 0.1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
134 a₀
AllotropesRhombic Sulphur, Monoclinic Sulphur, Amorphous Sulphur
Neutron Cross Section
0.52
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00055
Quantum Numbers3P2
Space Group70 (Fddd)

Isotopes of Sulfur

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes20
Radioactive Isotopes19

26S

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
26.029716 ± 0.000644 Da
Mass Number26
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

26S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)%

27S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
27.018777 ± 0.00043 Da
Mass Number27
G-Factor
Half Life
16.3 ± 0.2 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

27S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)61%
2p (2-proton emission)3%

28S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
28.004372762 ± 0.000171767 Da
Mass Number28
G-Factor
0
Half Life
125 ± 10 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1982
Parity+

28S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)20.7%

29S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
28.996678 ± 0.000014 Da
Mass Number29
G-Factor
Half Life
188 ± 4 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1964
Parity+

29S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)46.4%

30S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
29.98490677 ± 0.000000221 Da
Mass Number30
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.1798 ± 0.0003 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

30S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

31S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
30.979557002 ± 0.000000246 Da
Mass Number31
G-Factor
0.97586 ± 0.00016
Half Life
2.5534 ± 0.0018 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1940
Parity+

31S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

32S

Abundance
94.85 ± 2.55
Relative Atomic Mass
31.97207117354 ± 0.00000000141 Da
Mass Number32
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

33S

Abundance
0.763 ± 0.02
Relative Atomic Mass
32.97145890862 ± 0.00000000144 Da
Mass Number33
G-Factor
0.42883333333333 ± 0.000013333333333333
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.694 ± 0.004
Discovery Year1926
Parity+

34S

Abundance
4.365 ± 0.235
Relative Atomic Mass
33.967867011 ± 0.000000047 Da
Mass Number34
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1926
Parity+

35S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
34.969032321 ± 0.000000043 Da
Mass Number35
G-Factor
0.66666666666667 ± 0.026666666666667
Half Life
87.37 ± 0.04 d
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.483 ± 0.003
Discovery Year1936
Parity+

35S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

36S

Abundance
0.0158 ± 0.0017
Relative Atomic Mass
35.967080692 ± 0.000000201 Da
Mass Number36
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

37S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
36.9711255 ± 0.000000212 Da
Mass Number37
G-Factor
Half Life
5.05 ± 0.02 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1945
Parity-

37S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

38S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
37.9711633 ± 0.000007699 Da
Mass Number38
G-Factor
0
Half Life
170.3 ± 0.7 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1958
Parity+

38S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

39S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
38.97513385 ± 0.000053677 Da
Mass Number39
G-Factor
Half Life
11.5 ± 0.5 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity

39S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

40S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
39.975482561 ± 0.000004274 Da
Mass Number40
G-Factor
0
Half Life
8.8 ± 2.2 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

40S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

41S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
40.979593451 ± 0.0000044 Da
Mass Number41
G-Factor
Half Life
1.99 ± 0.05 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity-

41S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

42S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
41.9810651 ± 0.000003 Da
Mass Number42
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.016 ± 0.015 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

42S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1%

43S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
42.986907635 ± 0.000005335 Da
Mass Number43
G-Factor
Half Life
265 ± 13 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity-

43S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)40%

44S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
43.990118846 ± 0.0000056 Da
Mass Number44
G-Factor
0
Half Life
100 ± 1 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

44S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)18%

45S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
44.996414 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number45
G-Factor
Half Life
68 ± 2 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1989
Parity-

45S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)54%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

46S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
46.000687 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number46
G-Factor
0
Half Life
50 ± 8 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1989
Parity+

46S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

47S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
47.00773 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number47
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1989
Parity-

47S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

48S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
48.013301 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number48
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1990
Parity+

48S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

49S

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
49.021891 ± 0.000626 Da
Mass Number49
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity-

49S Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

History

By the 3rd century, the Chinese discovered that sulfur could be extracted from pyrite. Indian alchemists wrote extensively about the use of sulfur in alchemical operations with mercury, from the eighth century AD onwards. In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier helped convince the scientific community that sulfur was an element, not a compound. Known to the ancients; referred to in Genesis as brimstone

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: sulphur (brimstone).
PronunciationSUL-fer (English)
Elemental sulfur is considered to be of low toxicity
Penicillin is a natural, sulfur-based antibiotic

Uses

Sulfur's main commercial use is as a reactant in the production of sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a component of black gunpowder, and is used in the vulcanization of natural rubber and a fungicide. It is used to make sulfite paper and other papers, to fumigate fumigant, and to bleach dried fruits. It is also used extensively in making phosphatic fertilizers. Used in matches, gunpowder, medicines, rubber and pesticides, dyes and insecticides. Also for making sulfuric acid (H2SO4).

Sources

Found in pure form and in ores like cinnabar, galena, sphalerite and stibnite. Pure form is obtained from undergound deposits by the Frasch process.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
350 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
905 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0.2 %
Abundance in Meteor
4 %
Abundance in Sun
0.04 %
Abundance in Universe
0.05 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.4591
2p4.023
2s5.3712
3p10.5181
3s9.6331