Phosphorus

Phosphorus (P)

Phosphorus is the 15th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of P and atomic number of 15. It has an atomic weight of 30.97376 and a mass number of 31. Phosphorus has fifteen protons and sixteen neutrons in its nucleus, and fifteen electrons in three shells. It is located in group fifteen, period three and block p of the periodic table. Non-metallic element belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Has a multiple allotropic forms. Essential element for living organisms. It was discovered by Brandt in 1669.
Atomic Number15
Atomic Weight30.973761998
Mass Number31
Group15
Period3
Blockp
Protons15 p+
Neutrons16 n0
Electrons15 e-
Animated Bohr Model of P (Phosphorus)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
100 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
111 pm
Metallic Radius
110 pm
Ionic Radius
44 pm
Crystal Radius
58 pm
Van der Waals Radius
180 pm
Density
1.823 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Phosphorus0153045607590105120135150165180pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
626.8 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
0.746607 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
10.486686 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of P (Phosphorus)
Heat of Vaporization
49.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
2.51 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
316.5 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 5
Bohr Model: P (Phosphorus)
Valence Electrons5
Lewis Structure: P (Phosphorus)
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p3
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3
Enhanced Bohr Model of P (Phosphorus)
Orbital Diagram of P (Phosphorus)
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Electronegativity
2.19
Electrophilicity Index
1.6194282359497416 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
553.65 K
Melting Point
317.3 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
994.15 K
Triple Point
Visual

Phosphorus is a Colorless. P has a CPK of #ffa500, Jmol of #ff8000, and MOLCAS GV of #ff8000. The Appearance of Element 15 is colourless, waxy white, yellow, scarlet, red, violet, black. The Refractive Index of Phosphorus (P) is 1.001212.

Color
Colorless
Appearancecolourless, waxy white, yellow, scarlet, red, violet, black
Refractive Index
1.001212
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
23.824 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.769 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
10 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.0000001 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000113 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.00000000035 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000206
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Phosphorus is CUB. The lattice constant of P is 7.17 Å. The lattice angles of Element 15 are 1.25384, 1.57725, 1.24896.

Crystal StructureSimple Triclinic (CUB)
Lattice Constant
7.17 Å
Lattice Angles1.25384, 1.57725, 1.24896
Mechanical Properties

The Bulk Modulus of Phosphorus is 11 GPa.

Hardness
Bulk Modulus
11 GPa
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
Classification

The CAS Group of Phosphorus is VB. The IUPAC Group of P is VA. The Glawe Number of Element 15 is 89. The Mendeleev Number of Phosphorus (P) is 94. The Pettifor Number of Phosphorus is 90. The Goldschmidt Class of P is litophile.

CategoryOther nonmetals, Nonmetals
CAS GroupVB
IUPAC GroupVA
Glawe Number89
Mendeleev Number94
Pettifor Number90
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classlitophile

Other

The Gas Basicity of Phosphorus is 604.8 kJ/mol. The Dipole Polarizability of P is 25 plus or minus 1 a₀. Element 15 has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 185 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 187 a₀. The Allotropes of Phosphorus (P) are White Phosphorus, Red Phosphorus, Black Phosphorus. The Neutron Cross Section of Phosphorus is 0.18. The Neutron Mass Absorption of P is 0.0002. The Quantum Numbers of Element 15 is 4S3/2. The Space Group of Phosphorus (P) is 2 (P-1).

Gas Basicity
604.8 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
25 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
185 a₀
AllotropesWhite Phosphorus, Red Phosphorus, Black Phosphorus
Neutron Cross Section
0.18
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0002
Quantum Numbers4S3/2
Space Group2 (P-1)

Isotopes of Phosphorus

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes23
Natural Isotopes1

24P

Mass Number24
Neutron Number9
Relative Atomic Mass
24.036522 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

25P

Mass Number25
Neutron Number10
Relative Atomic Mass
25.021675 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

26P

Mass Number26
Neutron Number11
Relative Atomic Mass
26.01178 ± 0.00021 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
43.6 ± 0.3 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)35.1%
2p (2-proton emission)1.99%

27P

Mass Number27
Neutron Number12
Relative Atomic Mass
26.999292499 ± 0.000009662 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
260 ± 80 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.07%

28P

Mass Number28
Neutron Number13
Relative Atomic Mass
27.99232646 ± 0.000001231 Da
G-Factor
0.104 ± 0.001
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
270.3 ± 0.5 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
0.137 ± 0.014
Discovery Year1953
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.0013%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.00086%

29P

Mass Number29
Neutron Number14
Relative Atomic Mass
28.981800368 ± 0.000000385 Da
G-Factor
2.4688 ± 0.0006
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4.102 ± 0.004 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1941
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

30P

Mass Number30
Neutron Number15
Relative Atomic Mass
29.97831349 ± 0.000000069 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.5 ± 0.0017 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

31P

Mass Number31
Neutron Number16
Relative Atomic Mass
30.97376199768 ± 0.0000000008 Da
G-Factor
2.26185 ± 0.00001
Abundance
100
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

32P

Mass Number32
Neutron Number17
Relative Atomic Mass
31.973907643 ± 0.000000042 Da
G-Factor
-0.2528 ± 0.0002
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
14.269 ± 0.007 d
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

33P

Mass Number33
Neutron Number18
Relative Atomic Mass
32.971725692 ± 0.00000117 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
25.35 ± 0.11 d
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

34P

Mass Number34
Neutron Number19
Relative Atomic Mass
33.973645886 ± 0.00000087 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
12.43 ± 0.1 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1945
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

35P

Mass Number35
Neutron Number20
Relative Atomic Mass
34.973314045 ± 0.000002003 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
47.3 ± 0.8 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

36P

Mass Number36
Neutron Number21
Relative Atomic Mass
35.97825961 ± 0.000014078 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
5.6 ± 0.3 s
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

37P

Mass Number37
Neutron Number22
Relative Atomic Mass
36.979606942 ± 0.000040738 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.31 ± 0.13 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1971
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

38P

Mass Number38
Neutron Number23
Relative Atomic Mass
37.984303105 ± 0.000077918 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
640 ± 140 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12%

39P

Mass Number39
Neutron Number24
Relative Atomic Mass
38.986285865 ± 0.000120929 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
282 ± 24 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)26%

40P

Mass Number40
Neutron Number25
Relative Atomic Mass
39.991262221 ± 0.000089755 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
150 ± 8 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)15.8%
2n (2-neutron emission)

41P

Mass Number41
Neutron Number26
Relative Atomic Mass
40.994654 ± 0.000129 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
101 ± 5 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)30%
2n (2-neutron emission)

42P

Mass Number42
Neutron Number27
Relative Atomic Mass
42.00117214 ± 0.000101996 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
48.5 ± 1.5 ms
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)50%
2n (2-neutron emission)

43P

Mass Number43
Neutron Number28
Relative Atomic Mass
43.005411 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
35.8 ± 1.3 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1989
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)100%
2n (2-neutron emission)

44P

Mass Number44
Neutron Number29
Relative Atomic Mass
44.011927 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
18.5 ± 2.5 ms
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1989
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

45P

Mass Number45
Neutron Number30
Relative Atomic Mass
45.017134 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1990
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

46P

Mass Number46
Neutron Number31
Relative Atomic Mass
46.02452 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1990
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

47P

Mass Number47
Neutron Number32
Relative Atomic Mass
47.030929 ± 0.000644 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Phosphor.JPG

History

Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669, in Hamburg, Germany, preparing it from urine. In 1769, Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate is found in bones, and they obtained elemental phosphorus from bone ash. Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777. From the Greek phosphoros, light bearing; ancient name for the planet Venus when appearing before sunrise

DiscoverersHennig Brand
Discovery LocationGermany
Discovery Year1669
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: phosphoros, (bringer of light).
PronunciationFOS-fer-es (English)
White phosphorus is highly toxic while red phosphorus is considered non-toxic
Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus

Uses

Many fertilisers contain a high proportion of phosphorus and are manufactured from concentrated phosphoric acids. Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics and incendiary shells. Phosphorus is also used in steel manufacture and in the production of phosphor bronze. Used in the production of fertilizers and detergents. Some is used in fireworks, safety matches, and incendiary weapons. Also some applications for it and some of its compounds which glow in the dark.

Sources

Found most often in phosphate rock. Pure phosphorus is obtained by heating a mixture of phosphate rock, coke, and silica to about 1450 °C.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,050 mg/kg
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
0.06 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
1.1 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
0.11 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0.0007 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0007 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.4422
2p4.0388
2s5.175
3p10.1136
3s9.3582

Also Known As

  • P
  • element 15
  • 15P

Translations

  • Italianfòsforo
  • GermanPhosphor
  • Norwegian Bokmålfosfor
  • Frenchphosphore
  • Dutchfosfor
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Spanishfósforo
  • Afrikaansfosfor
  • Amharicፎስፈረስ
  • AragoneseFosforo
  • Arabicفسفور
  • Asturianfósforu
  • Azerbaijanifosfor
  • Bashkirфосфор
  • Belarusianфосфар
  • Bulgarianфосфор
  • Banglaফসফরাস
  • Bretonfosfor
  • Bosnianfosfor
  • Catalanfòsfor
  • Corsicanfosfaru
  • Czechfosfor
  • Chuvashфосфор
  • Welshffosfforws
  • Danishfosfor
  • Divehiފޮސްފަރަސް
  • Greekφώσφορος
  • Esperantofosforo
  • EstonianFosfor
  • Basquefosforo
  • Persianفسفر
  • Finnishfosfori
  • Northern Frisianphosphor
  • Friulianfosfar
  • Irishfosfar
  • Galicianfósforo
  • Gujaratiફોસ્ફરસ
  • Manxfosfaar
  • Hakka Chineselìn
  • Hawaiianpokepola
  • Hebrewזרחן
  • Hindiफास्फोरस
  • Fiji Hindiphosphorus
  • Croatianfosfor
  • Haitian Creolefosfò
  • Hungarianfoszfor
  • Armenianֆոսֆոր
  • Interlinguaphosphoro
  • Indonesianfosforus
  • Idofosfo
  • Icelandicfosfór
  • Japaneseリン
  • Lojbansackycmu
  • Javanesefosfor
  • Georgianფოსფორი
  • KazakhФосфор
  • Kannadaರಂಜಕ
  • Korean
  • Kurdishfosfor
  • Komiфосфор
  • Latinphosphorus
  • LuxembourgishPhosphor
  • Ligurianfosforo
  • Lithuanianfosforas
  • Latvianfosfors
  • Mokshaпалыкандор
  • Māoripūtūtae-whetū
  • Macedonianфосфор
  • Malayalamഫോസ്ഫറസ്
  • Marathiस्फुरद
  • Western Mariфосфор
  • Malayfosforus
  • Low GermanPhosphor
  • Nepaliफस्फोरस
  • Norwegian Nynorskfosfor
  • Novialfosfore
  • Occitanfosfòr
  • Punjabiਫ਼ਾਸਫ਼ੋਰਸ
  • Polishfosfor
  • Western Panjabiفاسفورس
  • Portuguesefósforo
  • Quechuaphusphuru
  • Romanianfosfor
  • Russianфосфор
  • Sicilianfòsfuru
  • Serbo-Croatianfosfor
  • Sinhalaෆොස්පරස්
  • Slovakfosfor
  • Slovenianfosfor
  • Albanianfosfori
  • Serbianфосфор
  • Saterland FrisianPhosphor
  • Swedishfosfor
  • Swahiliposferi
  • Tamilபாசுபரசு
  • Teluguభాస్వరము
  • Tajikфосфор
  • Thaiฟอสฟอรัส
  • Tagalogposporo
  • Turkishfosfor
  • Uyghurفوسفور
  • Ukrainianфосфор
  • Urduشبتاب
  • Uzbekfosfor
  • VepsFosfor
  • Vietnamesephosphor
  • Warayfosforo
  • Kalmykсүүмг
  • Yiddishפאספאר
  • Yorubaphosphorus
  • Chinese
  • Cebuanoposporo
  • Central Kurdishفۆسفۆر
  • Mongolianфосфор
  • Odiaଫସ୍‌ଫରସ
  • German (Switzerland)Phosphor
  • English (Canada)phosphorus
  • English (United Kingdom)phosphorus
  • Portuguese (Brazil)fósforo
  • Cantonese
  • Scotsphosphorus
  • Chinese (China)
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • Newariफस्फोरस
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)фосфар
  • Tatarфосфор
  • Literary Chinese
  • Piedmontesefòsfor
  • Erzyaфосфор
  • Kikuyuphosphorous
  • Somalifosforos
  • Aromanianfosforu
  • Kyrgyzфосфор
  • Limburgishfosfor
  • cdolìng
  • Faroesefosfor
  • Scottish Gaelicfosfaras
  • Lombardfosforo
  • Maltesefosfru
  • Zhuanglinz
  • Sanskritफास्फोरस
  • Gan Chinese
  • Min Nan Chineselîn
  • Bhojpuriफॉस्फोरस
  • Tibetanའོད་མ།
  • Sundanesefosforus
  • olofosforu
  • Paliफस्फोरस
  • Tunisian Arabic (Arabic)فسفور
  • Lingua Franca Novafosfor
  • XhosaI-Phosphorus
  • Wu Chinese
  • azbفوسفور
  • kbpfɔsɩfɔrɩ
  • hywԼուսաբեր
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • Extremaduranfósforu
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • Burmeseဖော့စဖောရပ်
  • Chinese (Singapore)
  • Chinese (Malaysia)
  • Chinese (Macao SAR China)
  • Moroccan Arabicفوسفور
  • Egyptian Arabicفسفور
  • Pashtoفاسفورس
  • Bikolposporo
  • lldfosfor
  • Cornishfosforos
  • Balinesephosfor
  • Sardinianfòsforu
  • Malay (Arabic)فوسفوروس
  • Venetianfòsforo
  • Walloonfosfôre
  • Sindhiفاسفورس
  • Korean (North Korea)
  • blkဖော့သဖောရတ်သ်