Phosphorus

Phosphorus (P)

Non-metallic element belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Has a multiple allotropic forms. Essential element for living organisms. It was discovered by Brandt in 1669.
Atomic Number15
Atomic Weight30.973761998
Mass Number31
Group15
Period3
Blockp
Protons15 p+
Neutrons16 n0
Electrons15 e-
Phosphor.JPG Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
100 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
111.00000000000001 pm
Metallic Radius
110 pm
Ionic Radius
44 pm
Crystal Radius
58 pm
Van der Waals radius
180 pm
Density
1.823 g/cm³
Boiling Point
553 K
Melting Point
317.3 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 5
Electronegativity
2.19
Electrophilicity
1.6194282359497 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
626.8 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
0.746607 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
10.486686 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
49.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
2.51 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
316.5 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
23.824 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.769 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
604.8 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
25 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
185 a₀
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Color
Colorless
Crystal StructureSimple Triclinic (CUB)
Lattice Constant
7.17 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p3
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryOther nonmetals, Nonmetals
CAS GroupVB
IUPAC GroupVA
Glawe Number89
Mendeleev Number94
Pettifor Number90
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,050 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.06 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe0.0007%

Isotopes of Phosphorus

Stable Isotopes
31P
Unstable Isotopes
24P 25P 26P 27P 28P 29P 30P 32P 33P 34P 35P 36P 37P 38P 39P 40P 41P 42P 43P 44P 45P 46P

History

Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669, in Hamburg, Germany, preparing it from urine. In 1769, Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate is found in bones, and they obtained elemental phosphorus from bone ash. Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777. From the Greek phosphoros, light bearing; ancient name for the planet Venus when appearing before sunrise

DiscoverersHennig Brand
Discovery LocationGermany
Discovery Year1669
Name OriginGreek: phosphoros, (bringer of light).
White phosphorus is highly toxic while red phosphorus is considered non-toxic
Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus

Uses

Many fertilisers contain a high proportion of phosphorus and are manufactured from concentrated phosphoric acids. Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics and incendiary shells. Phosphorus is also used in steel manufacture and in the production of phosphor bronze. Used in the production of fertilizers and detergents. Some is used in fireworks, safety matches, and incendiary weapons. Also some applications for it and some of its compounds which glow in the dark.

Sources

Found most often in phosphate rock. Pure phosphorus is obtained by heating a mixture of phosphate rock, coke, and silica to about 1450 °C.