Polonium

Polonium (Po)

Rare radioactive metallic element, belongs to group 16 of the periodic table. Over 30 known isotopes exist, the most of all elements. Po-209 has a half-life of 103 years. Possible uses in heating spacecraft. Discovered by Marie Curie in 1898 in a sample of pitchblende.
Atomic Number84
Atomic Weight209
Mass Number188
Group16
Period6
Blockp
Protons84 p+
Neutrons104 n0
Electrons84 e-
2019-11-22 Spark plugs and static eliminators with radioactive polonium at museum display.jpg 671067N.jpg Electron shell 084 polonium.png Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
190 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
145 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
94 pm
Crystal Radius
108 pm
Van der Waals radius
197 pm
Density
9.2 g/cm³
Boiling Point
1,235 K
Melting Point
527 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6
Electronegativity
2
Electrophilicity
2.0413454866442 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
Heat of Vaporization
102.9 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
44 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States-2, 2, 4, 6
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureSimple Cubic (SC)
Lattice Constant
3.35 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupVIB
IUPAC GroupVIA
Glawe Number93
Mendeleev Number103
Pettifor Number91
Geochemical ClassU/Th decay series
Goldschmidt Classsynthetic
Radioactivity
RadioactiveYes ☢️
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.0000000002 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universena

Isotopes of Polonium

Stable Isotopes
Unstable Isotopes
188Po 189Po 190Po 191Po 192Po 193Po 194Po 195Po 196Po 197Po 198Po 199Po 200Po 201Po 202Po 203Po 204Po 205Po 206Po 207Po 208Po 209Po 210Po 211Po 212Po 213Po 214Po 215Po 216Po 217Po 218Po 219Po 220Po

History

Polonium was discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898 in Paris. This element was the first one discovered by the Curies while they were investigating the cause of pitchblende radioactivity. The dangers of working with radioactive elements were not known when the Curies made their discoveries. Named after Poland, native country of Madam Curie

DiscoverersPierre and Marie Curie
Discovery LocationFrance
Discovery Year1898
Name OriginNamed for Poland, native country of Marie Curie.
Polonium is highly dangerous and radioactive
Polonium is obtained by irradiating bismuth with high-energy neutrons or protons

Uses

Polonium is used to eliminate static electricity produced during processes such as rolling paper, wire and sheet metal. Polonium can be mixed or alloyed with beryllium to provide a source of neutrons. It is also used in anti-static brushes to eliminate dust on photographic film. Used in industrial equipment that eliminates static electricity caused by such processes as rolling paper, wire, and sheet metal.

Sources

Occurs in pitchblende from decay of bismuth.